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τῷ ἔαρι: of 492 B. C. H. here begins his year, like Thucydides, with spring.
H. is so anxious to put forward his supposed proof that he makes ἐρέω the main verb instead of leaving it in a dependent clause. Cf. i. 27. 2; ii. 103. 2; vi. 14. 1, &c. For the speech of Otanes cf. iii. 80, and for the ‘Seven’ iii. 84. It has been held that this is a reply to criticisms passed on the story of the debate (iii. 80 f.), but the incredulity of the critics is already noticed there, and may perhaps apply rather to the tradition handed down to H. than to the form given it in his work. The proof here alleged is of the weakest. Otanes, not Gobryas, was the advocate of democracy, and there was all the difference between establishing democracy in Persia and permitting it in Ionia. Further H. seems to have exaggerated and misrepresented the action of Mardonius. In many Greek and Carian cities (vii. 98, 195) dynasts held their own. So in Chios Strattis (iv. 138; viii. 132), in Samos Aeaces (ch. 25), in Cos Cadmus (vii. 164), in Halicarnassus Artemisia (vii. 99). In Lampsacus, too, the sons of Aeantides, son of Hippoclus (iv. 138) succeeded to the throne (Thuc. vi. 59). Here again, as in ch. 42, it is true that H. only speaks of Ionians, but such a measure would naturally extend to all the revolted states which had expelled their tyrants. This establishment of democracies then may mean little more than the restoration of local liberties ascribed by Diodorus to Artaphrenes (ch. 42 n.). In any case it would seem to have been partial, and dictated rather by distrust of the tyranny which had proved a dangerous instrument of government, than by any preference for democracy.
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