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κήρυκες: the most famous are the Talthybiadae, sprung from the herald of the Atridae (vii. 134).

αὐληταί: important, as the Spartan army marched to battle to the sound of the flute (Thuc. v. 70).

μάγειροι: clearly those who prepared the Phiditia. They had their heroes, Μάττων (kneader) and Κεράων (mixer), whose statues stood on the Hyacinthine way (Athen. 39 E). Apparently they accompanied the army on campaigns (ix. 82).

No general caste-system should be inferred. Nowhere in the ancient world, not even in Egypt (ii. 164 f.), was there so fully established a caste-system as now exists in India, where status is fixed and free competition eliminated. Yet in all non-progressive societies, such as Sparta, crafts tend to be hereditary.

σφέας παρακληίουσι, ‘shut out the hereditary heralds.’

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    • Thucydides, Histories, 5.70
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