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ἀνδρῶν ἐχηρώθη: cf. Solon, fr. 37. 4 πολλῶν ἂν ἀνδρῶν ἥδ᾽ ἐχηρώθη πόλις, Hom. Il. v. 642, Verg. Aen. viii. 571. The number of fallen is given as 6,000 by H. (vii. 148. 2), as 5,000 by Pausanias (iii. 4. 1). Later Argive tradition (ridiculed by Plutarch, Mor. 245) chose the sacred number 7,777, but this, as well as the stories that Cleomenes made a truce for seven days (Plut. Mor. 223) and that the battle was fought on the seventh day of the month (Ar. Pol. v. 3. 7, 1303 a 6), is no doubt due to the connexion with the festival of the Hubristika.

οἱ δοῦλοι. There appear to have been at Argos serfs (known as Γυμνήσιοι), resembling the Spartan Helots (Pollux, iii. 83), who might be described as δοῦλοι, though, like the Helots, they served as lightarmed. Plutarch, however (Mor. 243), attacks H. for this statement (ἐπανορθούμενοι δὲ τὴν ὀλιγανδρίαν, οὐχ ὡς Ἡρόδοτος ἱστορεῖ τοῖς δούλοις, ἀλλὰ τῶν περιοίκων ποιησάμενοι πολίτας τοὺς ἀρίστους συνῴκισαι τὰς γυναῖκας), clearly meaning that dependants of the same type as the Spartan Perioeci were granted citizenship and connubium. Aristotle (l. c.): ἐν Ἄργει τῶν ἐν τῇ ἑβδόμῃ ἀπολομένων ὑπὸ Κλεομένους τοῦ Λάκωνος ἠναγκάσθησαν παραδέξασθαι τῶν περιοίκων τινάς is generally interpreted (Gilbert, Gr. Staats, ii. 75; Susemihl, ad loc.) in agreement with Plutarch; but Newman (ad loc.) holds that there as elsewhere Aristotle means by ‘Perioeci’ serfs. If so, H. is justified in calling them δοῦλοι. For a fuller account of the troubles of the Argives cf. P. A. Seymour in J. H. S. xlii, pp. 24 f.

Though Argos was professedly neutral in the Persian war, Tiryns and Mycenae sent hoplites to Plataea (ix. 28. 4) and had their names inscribed on the three-headed snake (ix. 81 n.). They were therefore at that period independent. For the remains of Tiryns see Frazer, iii. 217-30.

Φιγαλεύς. Phigaleia is south-west Arcadia, near the Messenian frontier, and is built on a high plateau, bounded by deep glens, surrounded on three sides by mountains. Four miles off is the famous temple of Bassae (Frazer, Paus. iv. 390-404).

The war ended in the destruction of Tiryns and Mycenae (Paus. v. 23. 3; vii. 25. 6; ii. 16. 5; 25. 8). An aggressive war on the part of Tiryns is only conceivable if Argos was engaged elsewhere. Now about 472 Argos was allied to Tegea against the Spartans (cf. ix. 35 n.), by whom the allies were defeated near Tegea, but in the next great battle, fought by the Arcadians against the Spartans at Dipaea (circ. 470), the Argives took no part. The suggestion seems probable that Tiryns was encouraged to attack Argos by the battle of Tegea, and that the Argives were absent from the field of Dipaea because they were fully occupied in the siege of Tiryns, which was obstinately defended (Busolt, iii. 121 f.). Possibly Mycenae too fell at this time (468 B. C.). More probably, however, it was while Sparta was occupied with the Helot revolt after 464 B. C. (Diod. xi. 65); cf. Busolt, iii. 244; Meyer, iii, § 325. Neither city was left so completely desolate as Strabo (372) implies, as is proved by remains at Mycenae (Frazer, iii. 97 f.). Tirynthians found refuge at Halieis (viii. 137. 2 n.).

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