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Cleandrus deprived the oligarchs restored by Telines of power and made himself tyrant with the help of the people, circ. 505 B. C. (Ar. Pol. v. 12, 1316 a 35 f.). Παντάρης. To him would seem to belong a dedicatory inscription found at Olympia, I. G. A. 512 a Παντάρης μ᾽ ἀνέθηκε Μενεκράτιος Διὸ[ς ἆθλον Ἅρματι νικήσας πέδου ἐκ κλει]τοῦ Γελοαίου. Γέλων: son of Deinomenes (ch. 145. 2), the eldest of four brothers, Gelo, Hiero, Polyzelus, Thrasybulus (Simon. fr. 142), tyrant of Gela 491, of Syracuse 485-478 B. C., was succeeded by his brother Hiero first at Gela and then at Syracuse. Αἰνησιδήμου τοῦ Παταίκου. Clearly he is singled out for mention because he was a prominent man connected with Gelo. He may therefore probably be identified with the father of Thero, afterwards tyrant of Acragas and ally of Gelo (ch. 165). Some words, perhaps Θηρῶνος δὲ πατρός, have fallen out of the text. The genealogy of Thero, however, given by the scholiasts on Pind. Ol. ii. 16 and 82, does not contain the name of Pataecus, calling Aenesidemus son of Emmenides. It would seem from Ar. Rhet. i. 12 that Aenesidemus too dreamed of tyranny at Gela but was forestalled by Gelo; he may well be the tyrant of Leontini (Paus. v. 22. 7), established by Hippocrates. The family of the Emmenidae traced their origin back to Theras (cf. iv. 147 n.). One of Thero's ancestors came from Lindus in Rhodes to Gela, and thence to Acragas, where Telemachus, his grandfather, overthrew the tyrant Phalaris in Ol. 57.
Callipolis, a Naxian settlement, not far from its mother-city, perished before Strabo wrote (273). Naxos, said to have been the earliest Greek colony in Sicily, founded 735 B. C. by Thucles from Chalcis in Euboea (Thuc. vi. 3). Possibly Naxians joined in the colony and gave it its name (Hellanicus, fr. 50, F. H. G. i. 51; cf. Freeman, S. i. 570). It lay on a headland a little south of Tauromenium (Taormina), and was razed to the ground by Dionysius. A stream of lava has overspread the site. Ζαγκλαίους: cf. vi. 23 n. Λεοντίνους: founded from Naxos, circ. 729 B. C. (Thuc. vi. 4). Two hills or acropoleis rise from the famous plain; these are still covered with ruins. For a description cf. Polyb. vii. 6. πρός, ‘besides’; adverbial. Cf. v. 20. 4; vii. 166. 1.
Corinthians, under Archias, had founded Syracuse, 734 B. C. (?). Corcyra joined Corinth once again to save Syracuse by the dispatch of Timoleon (Plut. Tim. 3). On this occasion Hippocrates had occupied the Olympieium (Diod. x. fr. 28; cf. Freeman, S. ii, pp. 117 f.). Ἐλώρῳ: also Helorus (now Tellaro), with a town of the same name near its mouth, is a river whose deep valley (Pind. Nem. ix. 40 βαθυκρήμνοισι δ᾽ ἀμφ᾽ ἀκταῖς Ἑλώρου) was spanned by a bridge over which passed the Helorine coast road from Syracuse (Thuc. vi. 70; vii. 80). Καμάρινα: near the mouth of the Hipparis on the south coast between Gela and Cape Pachynus. The lake has become a marsh and the city on the hill lies desolate. For its history cf. ch. 156, and Thuc. vi. 5 “καὶ Καμάρινα τὸ πρῶτον ὑπὸ Συρακοσίων ᾠκἰσθη, ἔτεσιν ἐγγύτατα πέντε καὶ τριάκοντα καὶ ἑκατὸν μετὰ Συρακουσῶν κτίσιν” (i. e. 599 B. C.)' οἰκισταὶ δὲ ἐγένοντο αὐτῆς Δάσκων καὶ Μενέκωλος. ἀναστάτων δὲ Καμαριναίων γενομένων πολέμῳ ὑπὸ Συρακοσίων δἰ ἀπόστασιν (circ. 550 B. C.), χρόνῳ Ἱπποκράτης ὕστερον Γέλας τύραννος λύτρα ἀνδρῶν Συρακοσίων αἰχμαλώτων λαβὼν τὴν γῆν τὴν Καμαριναίων, αὐτὸς οἰκιστὴς γενόμενος κατῴκισε Καμαρίναν. καὶ αὖθις ὑπὸ Γέλωνος ἀνάστατος γενομένη τὸ τρίτον κατῳκίσθη ὑπὸ Γελῴων. Cf. also Philistus, fr. 8 and fr. 17, F. H. G. i. 186, 187. In the Peloponnesian war it played a hesitating part; cf. Thuc. vi. 75, 88; vii. 33. Its history is a typical example of the jealousy of great cities against their neighbours; cf. Thebes and Plataea, and in mediaeval times Milan and Pavia.
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