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ἦσάν οἱ πάντα, ‘was everything to him’; cf. iii. 157. 4 and less exactly i. 122. 3. Syracuse was the centre and capital of his dominion which extended over eastern Sicily, and since to the Greek mind city and state were inseparable, he increased the city at the expense of other communities (§§ 2, 3). The creation of this greater Syracuse, henceforward the chief city in Sicily, probably saved the island from Punic domination.
τὸ ἄστυ: the town as opposed to the citadel, v. 64. 2; viii. 51. 2; i. 14. 4. Μεγαρέας: cf. c. 155. 1 n. παχέας: a popular term for the well-to-do oligarchs; cf. v. 30. 1, 77. 2; vi. 91. 1. The harsh treatment of the Demos is probably to be explained by the fact that it was in part at least of non-Hellenic origin, but the military Sicilian tyrants are throughout less favourable to the people than the tyrants of Greece proper (cf. App. XVI, § 1). ἐπ᾽ ἐξαγωγῇ: sold to slave-traders ‘for export abroad’; cf. v. 6. 1.
Εὐβοέας: cf. Strabo 449 ἦν δὲ καὶ ἐν Σικελίᾳ Εὔβοια Χαλχιδέων τῶν ἐκεῖ (i. e. in Leontini) κτίσμα, ἣν Γέλων ἐξανέστησε καὶ ἐγένετο φρούριον Συρακουσίων. The site is unknown. διακρίνας: distinguishing as at Megara between the nobles and the commons. συνοίκημα: unpleasant to live with; so Aesch. Supplices 267 (of dragons) δυσμενῆ ξυνοικίαν. These wholesale deportations are characteristic of Sicilian history; cf. Hiero's transference of the men of Naxos and Catana to Leontini, his foundation of Aetna, and the later case of Leontini (Thuc. v. 4).
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