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Both H. and Aristotle speak as if the coincidence was accidental; cf. Poet. 23 ὥσπερ γὰρ κατὰ τοὺς αὐτοὺς χρόνους τ᾽ ἐν Σαλαμῖνι ἐγένετο ναυμαχία καὶ ἐν Σικελίᾳ Καρχηδονίων μάχη, οὐδὲν πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ συντείνουσαι τέλος, but Diodorus, who (xi. 24) dates the battle of Himera to the same day as Thermopylae, asserts there was an alliance between Persia and Carthage (xi. 1; Timaeus?). δὲ Ξέρξης . . . διεπρεσβεύσατο πρὸς Καρχηδονίους περὶ κοινοπραγίας, καὶ συνέθετο πρὸς αὐτοὺς ὥστε αὐτὸν μὲν ἐπὶ τοὺς τὴν Ἑλλάδα κατοικοῦντας Ἕλληνας στρατεύειν, Καρχηδονίους δὲ τοῖς αὐτοῖς χρόνοις μεγάλας παρασκευάσυσθαι δυνάμεις, καὶ καταπολεμῆσαι τοὺς τῶν Ἑλλήνων περὶ Σικελίαν καὶ Ἰταλίαν οἰκοῦντας. This is supported by Ephorus (fr. 111 ap. Schol. Pind. Pyth. i. 146; F. H. G. i. 264). Ἐκ δὲ Περσῶν καὶ Φοινίκων πρέσβεις πρὸς Καρχηδονίους (παραγενέσθαι) προστάσσοντας ὡς πλεῖστον δέοι στόλον: εἰς Σικελίαν δὲ βαδίζειν καὶ καταστρεψαμένους τοὺς τὰ τῶν Ἑλλήνων φρονοῦντας πλεῖν ἐπὶ Πελοπόννησον. Though neither of these two versions of the alliance can be traced back beyond the fourth century, their divergence in language is rather in their favour as suggesting an independent origin. Nor is the language of Ephorus unsuitable. The great king would very probably treat the colonists of his Phoenician subjects as though he were their sovereign, and the Carthaginians might not care to dispute the form so long as they secured the real advantages of an alliance. We cannot safely argue from the silence of H. and Aristotle that they were ignorant of any co-operation, much less that it did not exist in fact. The enemies of the Greeks would naturally plan a simultaneous attack, and in concerting their plans the Phoenicians would be useful intermediaries. The alliance may then be accepted (with Meltzer, Freeman, Busolt, E. Meyer, and Grundy) as against the doubts of Duncker, Beloch, Hauvette, and Macan.

ἐν τῇ Σικελίῃ. H. is equally vague in 167. 1. The battle was near Himera (Pind. Pyth. i. 79).

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