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ἀκάτοισι: ‘boats or cutters’ could hardly be used as corn-ships, more properly (191. 1) they are styled ὁλκάδες. In a Greek army (cf. ix. 29. 2) each hoplite was accompanied by an attendant (ὑπηρέτης, ch. 229. 1), who carried his baggage, provisions, and shield (hence ὑπασπίστης, Xen. Anab. iv. 2. 20; Hell. iv. 5. 14, 8. 39), and each horseman by a groom to look after his horse. Thus the addition of an equal number of non-effectives was the rule for a Greek force. Nor need we doubt that the Persian king and grandees brought with them large trains of servants. But to suppose that all the barbarous tribesmen enumerated in Xerxes' host brought each an attendant is absurd. The doubling of the sailors is based on the assumption that the crews of the transport ships were as numerous as those of the triremes. Ξέρξης ὁ Δαρείου. The patronymic is added here not to distinguish this Xerxes from others of the same name, but to emphasize the dignity of the master of the great host just enumerated; cf. iii. 66. 2, 88. 1; vi. 137. 1; vii. 1. 1; ix. 41. 1, 64. 1; and Thuc. ii. 19, 34, 47, 71, &c.
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