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Ἄναυα. The bitter salt lake Adji. Tuz. Göl, near Tchardak (cf. Ramsay, C. and B. 218, 230-1). Hamilton, i. 503: ‘Owing to the great evaporation constantly going on the salt crystallizes on the surface and is scraped off with large wooden spades.’

Colossae, three miles NNW. from the modern Chonas (Χῶναι), lies on the banks of the Lycus on rising ground that overhangs the river at the point where it enters a deep and picturesque gorge. It remained in 401 B. C. a populous city, prosperous and great (Xen. Anab. i. 2. 6), but decayed after the foundation of Laodicea (probably 260 B. C.), and was in Strabo's time a small town (πόλισμα) (Strabo 576). H.'s account of the underground course of the Lycus is improbable compared with Strabo's, who says (578): ‘It flows for the greater part of its course underground, and thereafter appears to view and joins other rivers.’ This is the modern native account, according to which the source of the Lycus is in the lake of Anaua (just as that of the Maeander is in that of Aurocrene; cf. sup.). It issues from its underground course near Dere-Keui from beneath a chasm, where the sound of a subterranean river can be distinctly heard (Hamilton, i. 507). There is no probability that the Lycus ever flowed at Colossae through an underground channel five stadia long, or that arches were formed over it as over some smaller streams by petrifaction; but the stream does pass through a deep and narrow cleft of about that length, and in places goes underground for a few yards. H. has erroneously combined these facts; cf. G. Weber, M. A. I. (1891), xv. 196 f.; and for a more far-fetched explanation Ramsay, C. B. 209-11.


Κύδραραν: identified by Radet (Lydie, p. 324 f.) with the Caraura of Strabo (578), on the boundary of Phrygia and Caria, but the name is interchangeable with Hydrela (Liv. xxxvii. 56), the variation of ρ and λ being common. If so, it lay north of the Lycus, and southeast of the Maeander near Hierapolis (Steph. Byz.). A position in the valley of the Lycus, just before it joins the Maeander, suits H.'s narrative (Ramsay, C. and B. 85, 172-5).

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    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.2.6
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