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Καλλάτηβον. Clearly in the Cogamus valley, probably near Ine Göl, since the tamarisk-tree, which gave the inhabitants their staple industry, is very abundant in the neighbourhood, but does not grow in the mountain passes to the south-east (Hamilton, ii. 374 f.). Radet's restoration of the name in an inscription found at Baharlar is shown to be most improbable (Anderson, J. H. S. xviii. 87-9).

The ‘honey’ was made by thickening the tamarisk syrup with wheat-flour; cf. i. 193. 4; iv. 194. For the Persians' pride in the cultivation of trees cf. ch. 5. 3 n. Pliny (xvi, § 240) saw a similar tree near Apamea-Celaenae, and Hamilton (i. 517) ‘the half-ruined trunk of one of the most gigantic he had ever seen’ near Laodiceia ad Lycum. So a Lycian tree was honoured by the legate Licinius Mucianus for its girth and shade (Plin. xii, § 9). The Chinar or oriental plane is honoured in Persia (Yule, M. Polo, i. 135).

ἀθανάτῳ. When the appointed guardian died, a successor was ready to take his place (Abicht), so there was always a guardian. ‘Le roi est mort, vive le roi.’ It was for the same reason that the 10,000 were called ‘Immortals’ (ch. 83. 1), but it does not seem likely that one of them was detailed for this duty (Rawlinson).

With this account of Xerxes' march from Celaenae to Sardis should be compared the Anabasis of Cyrus in the opposite direction (Xen. Anab. i. 2. 6-9) and the distances there given (Macan, ii. 130).

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    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.2.6
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