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Ἀράβιοι: cf. iii. 88. 1 n. ζειράς (cf. 75. 1): apparently a Semitic word, means a long flowing mantle held in by a girdle (ὑπεζωσμένοι), like the burnous of the modern Arab. παλίντονα. In the ordinary Greek bow, as in the modern, stringing merely increased the natural curve; but there was also another form (παλίντονα), which when strung was bent back wards against the natural curve. This must have given it tremendous power. The bow of Odysseus, which is called both παλίντονα (Od. xxi. 11, 59) and καμπύλα (xxi. 359), was (xxi. 395) apparently made, like that of Pandarus, of two goat's-horns joined together by a straight stock in the centre (Il. iv. 105 seq.). Similar is the description of Σκυθικὰ . . . παλίντονα . . . βέλη (Aesch. Choeph. 160) given by Ammianus Marcellinus (xxii. 8. 37). πρὸς δεξιά: at the right side, an unusual position. φοίνικος σπάθης: a long strip of split palm-wood probably hardened in the fire (Strabo 822), not the stem of the palm-leaf (Rawlinson, L. & S.). The length of the bow would make it unnecessary to bend it much, so small arrows would be appropriate. τυλωτά: cf. 63 n. Wooden clubs made of acacia or ebony are still used by Ethiopians. These clubs and garments of skins loosely girt on (ἐναμμένοι) characterize Ethiopians in Egyptian paintings, Cf. woodcuts in Rawlinson on iii. 97.
τῶν ... ὑπὲρ Αἰγύπτου: the Nubian tribes just above Egypt. Cf. ii. 29. 4 f.; iii. 97. 2 f.; and iii. 17 1 n. Arsames is said to be governor of Memphis by Aeschylus (Pers. 37).
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