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ἑσπέρης. The true points of the compass are north-west and south-east; cf. vii. 36. 2, 176. 3. H. is probably under the misapprehension that the two fleets were ranged along the sides of the straits, but the true explanation would seem to be that each fleet pushed forward its right wing (Aesch. Pers. 399, 409, and App. XXI. 7; Grundy, p. 397), which could be supported by troops posted on the shore behind it. The Athenians, as at Plataea, had the left wing, the post second in honour (ix. 26 f.), the Lacedaemonians the post of honour on the extreme right. Diodorus (xi. 18) wrongly stations the Lacedaemonians with the Athenians, and puts the Megarians and Aeginetans on the right. He agrees in putting the Phoenicians on the right and the Ionians on the left of the Persian line (xi. 17), adding that the Cyprians, Cilicians, Pamphylians, and Lycians were between them arranged in that order (xi. 19). This geographical order may be taken from the list of ships in vii. 90-2.

τὰς ... ἐντολάς: cf. ch. 22.

The exception is due to the author's peculiar interest in Samos. Theomestor must have received his reward at once and enjoyed it less than a year, since Samos was freed again in 479; cf. ix. 90 f.

Enrolment as a benefactor was an honour not uncommonly paid to foreigners by Greek states (cf. 136. 1 n.). It was also a regular Persian custom (cf. ch. 90. 4; iii. 140, 154, 160; vi. 30), as is proved by the book of Esther (vi. 1 f.; cf. ii. 23), the inscription of Gadatas (Hicks No. 20) διὰ ταῦτά σοι κείσεται μεγάλη χάρις ἐμ βασίλεως οἴκῳ, Thuc. i. 129κεῖταί σοι εὐεργεσία ἐν τῷ ἡμετέρῳ οἴκῳ ἐς αἰεὶ ἀνάγραπτος”, and Arrian, Anab. iii. 27. 4.

ὀροσάγγαι (Soph. fr. 193; Hesych. Phot.) = σωματοφύλακες τοῦ βασιλέως, and in this sense might come from old Pers. var, ‘to guard’ and khshâyata, ‘king,’ but Nymphis (fr. 12; F. H. G. iii. 14) explains it as here, ξένοι βασίλειοι. Rawlinson suggests khur sangha (Zend), ‘worthy of praise or record.’

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  • Commentary references from this page (2):
    • Aeschylus, Persians, 399
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.129
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