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καὶ ἀμφότεροι, ‘both sides’ (καί giving emphasis (i. 74. 3)); one would not have expected it of Persians. The Iamidae, who traced their descent from Iamus, son of Apollo (Pind. Ol. vi. 35-72; Paus. vi. 2. 5), were the most famous of the great families of soothsayers in Elis. They took auspices at the altar of Zeus at Olympia (Pind. Ol. vi. 5, 70; viii. 2, quoted viii. 133 n.) and furnished soothsayers to many Greek states (v. 44. 2; Paus. iv. 16. 1, vi. 2. 5, viii. 10. 5). They had a family tomb in Sparta (Paus. iii. 12. 8). Κλυτιάδην here is a late gloss, and does not occur in Paus. iii. 11. 6, a passage obviously derived from this. Further, Cicero plainly distinguishes the Iamidae and the Clytidae; De Div. i. 41. 91 ‘Elis in Peloponneso familias duas certas habet, Iamidarum unam, alteram Clytidarum, haruspicinae nobilitate praestantes’; Philostratus (Apollonius of Tyana, v. 25) agrees, adding the Telliadae (ch. 37. 1). Again Pausanias, who traces the Iamidae to Iamus and Apollo (vi. 25), makes Clytius, the ancestor of the Clytids, a descendant of Melampus (vi. 17. 1), as does Homer (Od. xv. 241) though with a different pedigree.

λεωσφέτερον: a ἅπαξλεγόμενον, probably derived from λεώς, meaning full citizen (§ 4).

περὶ γόνου. Probably, being childless, he adopted his brother's son (§ 5), for Pausanias (iii. 11. 5) says that his grandson Hegias was with Lysander at Aegospotami as seer.


ἀναιρησόμενος γυμνικοὺς ἀγῶνας: cf. v. 102. 3.

ἀσκέων δὲ πεντάεθλον: cf. vi. 92. 2 n.

The order of events in the Pentathlum seems to be best given by Eustathius on Il. xxiii. 621ἅλμα ποδῶν δίσκου τε βολὴ καὶ ἄκοντος ἐρωὴ καὶ δρόμος ἤδε πάλη” (cf. Soph. Elec. 691; schol. ad Pind. Isth. i. 35), Simonides (153) ἅλμα ποδωκείην δίσκον ἄκοντα πάλην displacing the running metri gratia. Certainly the wrestling came after all the other contests; cf. Xen. Hell. vii. 4. 29; Bacchyl. ix. 30 f., especially τελευταίας ἀμάρυγμα πάλας. Pausanias (iii. 11. 6) says that Tisamenus beat his opponent Hieronymus in running and jumping, but he was no doubt beaten by him in throwing the spear and the discus; hence the wrestling, the last event, was decisive. The wrestling then, as now, was decided by the best of three falls (Aesch. Eumen. 589 f.; Eur. Or. 434; Plato, Phaedr. 256 B, Euthyd. 277 D; Anthol. Pal. xi. 316). Each had won a fall in this, so all depended on ‘a single fall’ (ἓν πάλαισμα), the last; this is better than to take ἓν πάλαισμα in a more general sense of ‘the odd event’. For a full discussion cf. E. N. Gardiner, J. H. S. xxiii. 54 f. He shows that any competitor, e. g. Aristomedes of Phlius (Bacchyl. l. c.), who won three events, must have won outright (cf. schol. ad Aristid. Panath. ἀρκεῖ (τοῖς πεντάθλοις) τρία τῶν πέντε πρὸς νίκην), and suggests that, if at the end, two or more competitors had scored an equal number of wins, account was taken of second and third places as apparently in the mythical pentathlum of Peleus (Philost. Gymn. 3). (See note, p. 417.)

ἔδραμε (cf. vii. 57. 1 n.): more emphatic than the common παρὰ μικρὸν ἦλθε, parum afuit quin.


τὸ Τεισαμενοῦ μαντήιον: cf. v. 43 n.

ἡγεμόνα τῶν πολέμων. This cannot mean that the seer was to share the actual command in war, for in comparison with this the grant of citizenship would be nothing. It seems to refer to the position of the kings as priests, since they offered sacrifice before all important undertakings (Xen. Rep. Lac. 13). Tisamenus was to act with them in this.


χρησμοσύνης: here concrete ‘request’; so κελευομοσύνη, i. 157. 2.

τούτοισι μούνοισι: added to give clearness and emphasis to οὕτω, ‘on these conditions only.’

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hide References (13 total)
  • Commentary references from this page (13):
    • Aeschylus, Eumenides, 589
    • Euripides, Orestes, 434
    • Homer, Odyssey, 15.241
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 3.11.6
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 3.12.8
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 4.16.1
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 6.2.5
    • Pindar, Olympian, 6
    • Plato, Phaedrus, 256b
    • Plato, Euthydemus, 277d
    • Sophocles, Electra, 691
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 7.4.29
    • Homer, Iliad, 23.621
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