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μοῦνοι ... δὴ ... πολιῆται. This statement is clearly inaccurate, since Helots were occasionally admitted to citizenship as Mothakes (Phylarch. fr. 44; F. H. G. i. 347), though not as Neodamodeis (Thuc. vii. 19, 58, &c.). Again, in mythical times H. himself records the admission of the Minyae to citizenship (iv. 145), and implies the same of the Aegidae (iv. 149). To these cases, and perhaps also to the non-Dorian Talthybiadae (vii. 134) and the Epeunacti (Theopompus, fr. 190; F. H. G. i. 310), Aristotle may refer when he declares that in the days of the early kings the Spartans bestowed the citizenship freely (Pol. ii. 9. 17, 1270 a 35). H. must be taken to mean that Tisamenus and Hegias were the only foreigners admitted to Spartan citizenship in historical times, a striking example of an exclusiveness eventually fatal to the state; cf. Tac. Ann. xi. 24. H. clearly knew nothing of the alleged grants to Tyrtaeus (Plato, Leg. 629 A; Plutarch, Mor. 230 D) and to Alcman (Plut. Mor. 600 E).
This brief summary is our earliest and most authentic record of an anti-Spartan movement in the Peloponnese, which does much to explain the free hand allowed to Athens in the Aegean after 476 B. C., and the rapid growth of her power. The most certain point in the movement is the συνοικισμός at Elis before 470 (Diodor. xi. 54; Strabo 337) with the democratic changes that accompanied it, especially the formation of ten local tribes (Paus. v. 9. 5) and the establishment of a βουλή of 500, later increased to 600 (Thuc. v. 47); cf. Busolt, iii. 116 f. The democratic constitution of Argos, with its popular assembly (Thuc. v. 28, 31), βουλή, and law court, may date from this time; certainly it is not later than 460 B. C. (cf. Busolt, iii. 114 f.). On the other hand the συνοικισμός (Strabo 337) and the democratic movement at Mantinea (Ar. Pol. 1318 b 25-7), placed circ. 470 B. C. by Busolt (iii. 118), should be dated ten years later, since Mantinea took no part in the battle of Dipaea, and assisted Sparta in the Messenian war, i. e. at Ithome (Xen. Hell. v. 2, 3); cf. Meyer, iii. § 285. On the battles of Tegea and Dipaea later writers (e. g. Paus. iii. 11. 7; viii. 8. 6 and 45. 2; Isocr. Arch. 99) add little or nothing of value to H. Both should be dated near together in the time of the movement against Sparta, i. e. circ. 473-470 B. C. (Busolt, iii. 121 n. 1; Meyer, iii. § 285). Themistocles would then be in Argos intriguing against Sparta, if the traditional date for the fall of Themistocles (470 B. C.) refers not to his ostracism (as Meyer, iii. § 286 n.) but to his final expulsion and flight (Busolt, iii. 112 n. 2). Tegea would seem to have been hostile to Sparta just before as well as after the Persian war. At any rate, Hegesistratus found refuge there before 480 B. C. (ix. 37), and Leotychides afterwards (vi. 72). Apparently the Tegeans, though defeated in the battle here mentioned, defended their city with success (Simonides, fr. 103). They were, however, induced then or later by Cleandridas to accept oligarchy and Spartan hegemony. Yet they seem to have been still in alliance with Argos at the time of the destruction of Mycenae, i. e. circ. 464 B. C.; cf. vi. 83. 2 n. and Strabo 377 Ἀργεῖοι μετὰ Κλεωναίων καὶ Τεγεατῶν ἐπελθόντες ἄρδην τὰς Μυκήνας ἀνεῖλον. ἐν Διπαιεῦσι: also called Dipaea (Paus. viii. 27. 3; Isocr. Arch. 6. 99), on the river Helison (Paus. viii. 30. 1), in the district Maenalia (Paus. iii. 11. 7), perhaps the modern Dabia. The Argives are believed to have been kept away from this battle by the siege of Tiryns (cf. vi. 83. 2 n.), and the Mantineans stood aloof, doubtless from hostility to Tegea (Meyer, iii, § 285). The Spartans, though greatly outnumbered (Isocr. l. c.), gained a decisive victory, which restored their prestige in the Peloponnese. Ἰσθμῷ, the reading of the MSS., is confirmed by Paus. iii. 11. 8 “πρὸς τοὺς ἐξ Ἰσθμοῦ ἐς Ἰθώμην ἀποστάντας τῶν Εἱλώτων”, since he is obviously combining this passage with Thucydides' (i. 101-3) account of the third Messenian war and the siege of Ithome. It is therefore uncritical (with Paulmier) to correct to πρὸς Ἰθώμῃ, especially as we know only of a siege and not of any battle at Ithome. The combat here mentioned is, like that of Stenyclarus in this war (ch. 64), elsewhere unnoticed. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (A. and A. ii. 296 n.) would read ὁ Μεσσηνίων πρὸς τῷ Ἰσθμῷ, making Μεσσηνίων depend on τῷ Ἰσθμῷ. In any case this Isthmus would seem to be an otherwise unknown place in Messenia. Stein is reminded of the legendary king of Messenia, Isthmius (Paus. iv. 3. 10). Tisamenus and the oracle at Delphi induced the Spartans to make terms with the revolted Helots and to let them go (Paus. iii. 11. 8; cf. Thuc. i. 103). Τανάγρῃ: for Tanagra (457 B. C.) cf. Thuc. i. 107-8; Hill, Sources, p. 103 f. The Athenians received aid from Argos, Cleonae (Paus. i. 29. 5, 7), and other allies. Hicks, 28-30; Paus. v. 10. 4 with Frazer.
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