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Φαρανδάτεος: cf. vii. 79. He was a nephew of Darius.

κοσμησαμένη. Pausanias (iii. 4. 9) also insists on her rich attire and retinue.

ἁρμαμάξης: cf. vii. 41. 1 n.


Verrall (Cl. R. xvii. 99-101) has ingeniously argued that this speech is a transcript from an inscription, explaining a picture or bas-relief dedicated by the lady and representing her as a suppliant before the ‘king’, with Persian corpses (one named Φαρανδάτης Τεάσπιος) on the ground, and two maids on the one side balancing two ephors on the other. The inscription would run βασιλεῦ Σπάρτης, λῦσαί μ᾽ ἱκέτιν δοριλήπτου | (αἰχμαλώτου δουλοσύνης. σὺ γὰρ εἰς τόδ᾽ ὄνησας τούσδ᾽ ἀπολέσσας, | τοὺς οὔθ᾽ ἡρώων (δαιμόνων), οὐ θεῶν ὄπιν οὔτιν᾽ ἔχοντας. | Κῴη δ᾽ εἰμὶ γένος, θυγάτηρ Ἡγητορίδαο Ἀνταγόραο: βίῃ δὲ λαβὼν Κῷ μ᾽ εἶχεν Πέρσης. H. has but substituted the generic δαιμόνων for ἡρώων (cf. viii. 109. 3 n.) and disguised the verse by writing αἰχμαλώτου for δοριλήπτου, though even so the expression remains poetical; cf. viii. 114. 2 n. H.'s interest in this lady of Cos may be explained by the close connexion between Cos and Halicarnassus (vii. 163 n.); both were under Artemisia (vii. 99).

βασιλεῦ. Pausanias, though only regent (ch. 10), might well be addressed as king (cf. vii. 161 n.). For Pausanias cf. v. 32 n.


In Xenophon's time at least the king was regularly accompanied by two ephors on all European expeditions (Xen. Rep. Lac. xiii. 5; Hell. ii. 4. 36), and it may be that this custom is as old as the time of the Persian war. Yet Pleistoanax (445 B. C.) is accompanied to Attica not by Ephors but by a number of councillors, the chief of whom is appointed by the Ephors (Plut. Per. 22), and Agis after his failure by ten councillors (Thuc. v. 63, 418 B. C.). The apparent freedom from any control enjoyed by Pausanias and Leotychides, as well as by Archidamus at the beginning and Agis at the end of the Peloponnesian War (Thuc. viii. 5) is also remarkable. We must either suppose that the Ephors, though present, did not interfere with the king, but only reported on his conduct, or that the custom is later and the presence of Ephors on this occasion accidental.

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  • Commentary references from this page (3):
    • Thucydides, Histories, 5.63
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.5
    • Plutarch, Pericles, 22
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