HYMN TO APHRODITETHIS slight hymn was composed for a contest (19, 20), but there are no distinctive marks either of date or locality. Baumeister's theory of a Cyprian origin is as likely as any other, but cannot be proved from line 2, “ἣ πάσης Κύπρου κρήδεμνα λέλογχεν” (see h. Aphr. Introd. p. 198). The mention of the Cyprian Aphrodite is purely literary, and the title would be familiar to any Greek audience. The rhapsodist was certainly acquainted with Hesiod (see on 1, 3, 5, 12, 19), and no doubt also with the Cypria, where there occurs a similar description of the adornment of the goddess (see on 5). Indeed it would have been remarkable if the author of a hymn to Aphrodite had not been influenced by an epic in which she played so large a part. On the other hand, as Gemoll notes, there is no clear trace of any debt to the longer hymn to Aphrodite. The writer also obviously borrows from “Ξ” (see on 8, 14) and other parts of Homer, so that Baumeister is hardly too severe in speaking of him as rhapsodus inops ingenii. No great originality was looked for in a short and formal prelude. ἐκ δ᾽ ἔβη αἰδοίη καλὴ θεός”, and Theog. 17 for the collocation “χρυσοστέφανον καλήν”. The epithet “αἰδοίη” “reverend” is the keynote of the hymn, and is suitable to a goddess whose cult, as Farnell observes (Cults ii. p. 668) is on the whole pure and austere; see also h. Aphr. Introd. p. 196.
 κρ́ηδεμνα: the early epic usage of this word, in the sense of “battlements,” requires a genitive of the city (“Τροίης, Θήβης, πόληος”; see on h. Dem. 151). The genitive of the country “Κύπρου” is a later extension; it is uncertain whether the meaning is here “walled cities” or simply “high places,” “mountains.”λέλογχεν: a variation for “ἔχει, ναίει” etc.; cf. Orphica p. 289 (Abel) “καί τ᾽ ἔλαχες δεινὰς μὲν ὁδούς” etc., Orph. Arg. 2; Adami (p. 242) quotes many examples from hymnal literature of such relative clauses giving the place connected with the god; so xxii. 3 etc.
 The goddess was carried in the foam from Cythera to Cyprus, i.e. by the west wind; cf. Theog. 190 f. For other references to Aphrodite “Ἀφρογενής” see Farnell p. 748. The Hesiodean etymology was accepted by Plato Crat. 406C, Anacr.54. 13, Apul. Met.iv. 28, Nicand. Alex. 406, Bionx. (xvi.) 1, Mosch.i. 71, Choerob. ap. Cramer An.ii. 170, Orph. h. i. 11. For other ancient and modern derivations of the name see Pauly-Wissowa 2773 f.
 The connexion of Aphrodite with the Horae is similar to that of the Charites, with whom she is more often mentioned (see on h. Aphr. 61); cf. h. Apoll. 194, Pax456“Ἑρμῇ, Χάρισιν, Ὥραισιν, Ἀφροδίτῃ, Πόθῳ”. For other references see Roscher Lex. i. 2719, Preller-Robert i. p. 477 f. In functions the Charites and Horae are almost identical (Harrison M. M. A. A. p. 383). Compare the adornment of Pandora, by the Charites with golden chains, by the Horae with flowers, Hes. Op.73 f., and Cypria fr. 2 “εἵματα μὲν χροῒ ἕστο, τά οἱ Χάριτές τε καὶ Ὧραι”“ποίησαν καὶ ἔβαψαν ἐν ἄνθεσιν εἰαρινοῖσιν”,
“οἷα φέρουσ᾽ Ὧραι κτλ.”, and fr. 3. For the number of the Horae see on 12.
 ἄνθεμ̓: not in Homer, who, however, has the adjective “ἀνθεμόεις” of decoration Il. 23.885 “, γ 440, ω” 275. The schol. T on Il. 23.885 derives this from “ἄνθεμα”, quoting Pind. Ol.ii. 72（“χρυσοῦ”): the word first occurs in Pindar.ὀρειχάλκου: first in Scut. 122, where see Sittl's note. The metal (whether pure copper, or a compound) cannot be identified: it was a mere name to Plato (Critias 114 E) and Aristotle (schol. on Apoll. Arg. 4.973). Strabo (610) calls it “ψευδάργυρον”, i.e. an alloy of silver and copper. Suidas explains by “ὁ διαυγὴς χαλκός, ὁ δόκιμος”. Pliny (H. N. xxxiv. 2) calls it a natural metal no longer to be found, iam tempore effeta tellure. The metal intended by Cic. Off.iii. 23 and other Latin writers is unknown; see Conington on Verg. Aen.xii. 87.The Latin aurichalcum is no doubt due to false etymology.
 κοσμείσθηΝ: the dual is given in all MSS., and alteration is uncalled for. According to one tradition there were only two Horae (so on the throne of the Amyclean Apollo, Paus.iii. 18. 10, and at Athens, Paus.ix. 35. 2, although Pausanias may be mistaken in the latter case; see Robert de Gratiis Atticis, Preller-Robert i. p. 478 n. 4). For two Horae in art see Roscher Lex. i. 2723 f., 2726 f. (Rapp). Two seasons were in all probability the original number, corresponding to the old division of the year into Summer and Winter; cf. the Egyptian statues of those seasons mentioned by Herod.ii. 121.The dual may therefore keep its proper force; the following plural “ἴοιεν” is a natural irregularity. Baumeister, however, defends the dual on the ground that in late epic it was sometimes used as an equivalent of the plural verb (see on h. Apoll. 456). He thinks that the hymn-writer would follow the Hesiodean version of three Horae (Theog. 902). Although this latter supposition is uncertain, Baumeister's explanation of the dual is very probable.
 Cf. Il. 14.187.Ἠρ́ησαντο: a reminiscence of Od. 1.366 “ πάντες δ᾽ ἠρήσαντο παραὶ λεχέεσσι κλιθῆναι”, and Od. 8.336-342.
 ἑλικοβλέφαρε: first in Theog. 16 (of Aphrodite). The meaning has been disputed; it is natural to compare “ἑλικώπιδα κούρην” (Il. 1.98), “ἑλίκωπες Ἀχαιοί” (ib. 389), but the sense of “ἑλίκωψ” is equally uncertain. The translation “with arched eyebrows” would suit “ἑλικοβλέφαρος”, but Leaf on Il. 1.98 points out that “ἕλιξ” means “twisted,” and is not used of a circular curve. “ἑλίκωψ” is probably “rolling the eyes” or “with flashing eyes,” and in “ἑλικοβλέφαρος” Leaf is perhaps right in seeing a loose use of “βλέφαρον” for “ὄμμα”, as in tragedy. See Meyer Griech. Et. i. s.v.Γλυκυμείλιχε: only here; cf. x. 2 “μείλιχα δῶρα”, of Aphrodite.