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πόνον—with ἀπέδειξα ὑποπτευόμενον, the object being repeated in αὐτὸν owing to the length of the sentence.

μὴ— subordinate to ὑποπτευόμενον. ὑπάρχον—with ἐνθυμηθῆναι, and both ἐς τὴν ἀρχὴν and μεγέθους πέρι belong to ὑπάρχον, ‘your possession of which, as bearing on your empire in respect of its greatness,’ i.e. ‘the existence of which, as it bears on the greatness of your empire.’

οὔτ᾽ ἐγὼ—sc. ἐχρησάμην αὐτῷ. κομπωδεστέραν—‘as the pretension it involves is rather arrogant.’

παρὰ τὸ εἰκὸς—‘unduly.’


Οἴεσθε—in this passage the topic τὸ δυνατὸν is used; Index, s.v. τόποι. μερῶν—depends on τοῦ ἑτέρου. ἐπὶ πλέον—sc. νέμεσθαι (c. 29, 2), ‘to any further extent you wish.’

ἄλλο—exclusive, cf. c. 14, 1; ‘nor any nation either.’ βασιλεὺς is not the Persian king, but goes with οὐκ . ὅστις. οὐδείς. τῶν ἐν τ. π.—cf. c. 41, 3.


ὥστε—the value of Attica cannot be compared with the value of the sea.

οὐ κατὰ .. χρείαν—‘not to be measured by the advantage derived from,’ i.e. is much greater than that. Shil. quotes many examples of οὐ or μὴ κατὰ meaning superior to; the same may mean inferior to, as in the phrase οὐ κατ᾽ ἀξίαν common in tragedy.

ὧν—sc. ἐστερημένοι. οὐδ᾽ εἰκὸς—neque decet, c. 10, 1.

χαλ. φέρειν—sc. ἐστερημένοι. [

αὐτῶν]—probably due to a note ἐστερῆσθαι αὐτῶν. μᾶλλον οὐ—cf. III. 36, 4 πόλιν διαφθεῖραι μᾶλλον οὐ τοὺς αἰτίους. Shil. notes that implies a negative, just as πρὶν does (A. J. of Phil. II. B. L. G. on πρἱν): and all sentences implying a neg. may be strengthened by an expressed neg. M. T. 815. Thus κινδυνεύω περὶ τοῦ μὴ σωθῆναι means the same thing as κινδυνεύω περὶ τοῦ σωθῆναι. κηπίον—a parterre of flowers. (The other view that κηπίον means a mode of dressing the hair is due to Aelius Dionysius: Eustath., p. 907, quotes Aelius, whose gloss also appears in Photius, Suidas, and more than once in Scholia; cf. Pollux, II. 29 κῆπος γὰρ οὐ μόνον φυταλιά, ἀλλὰ καὶ καλλσμὸς κόμης, κατ᾽ Αἰλιον Διονύσιον, καὶ κουρᾶς διάθεσις τῶν ἐν κεφαλῇ τριχῶν. Θουκυδίδης δὲ κηπίον φησι.)

ἐγκαλλώπισμα—of display in dress. Cf. Plato, Phaedo, p. 64 D τὰς ἄλλας τὰς περὶ τὸ σῶμα θεραπείας ... οἶον ἱματίων διαφερόντων κτήσεις καὶ ὑποδημάτων καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους καλλωπισμούς. γνῶναι—sc. εἰκός. ἀντιλ. αὐτῆς διασώσωμεν—c. 13, 2.

ἀναληψομένην ... φιλεῖν—the change of construction is due to the change in the sense of γνῶναι, which at first = know, then = judge or decide. M. T. 915.

ὑπακούσασι —with gen. of a perpetual attitude of submission, with dat. (61, 1) of submission at a particular moment.

πατέρων— the topic changes to τὸ συμφέρον. See 2 above. Demosth. 3, 36 μὴ παραχωρεῖν τῆς τάξεως ἣν ὑμῖν οἱ πρόγονοι μετὰ πολλῶν καὶ καλῶν κινδύνων κτησάμενοι κατέλιπον κατ᾽ ἀμφότερα—i.e. κατὰ τὸ κατασχεῖν καὶ διασώσαντες παραδοῦναι. But, as applied to his hearers, κατασχεῖν does not mean to acquire new empire, which Pericles discouraged; but to assert their mastery over their existing empire, and not think of surrendering it to Sparta: κατασχεῖν = both to get and to keep.

φανῆναι—sc. εἰκός. μετὰ πόνων—cf. I. 70, 8 μετἀ πόνων καὶ κινδύνων μοχθεῖν, ib. 19, 3 μετὰ κινδύνων τὰς μελετὰς ποιεῖδθαι. When abstract sing. nouns are used in these phrases (Thuc. has examples), as μετ᾽ ἀληθείας, the art. is rare.

προσέτι —once Thuc. uses πρὸς as an adv., III. 58, 5: elsewhere προσέτι. αὐτὰ—c. 36, 4.

αἴσχιονDemosth. 2, 26 πολὺ ῥᾷον ἔχοντας φυλάττειν κτήσασθαι. ἔχονταςδεξαμένους, while ἀφαιρεθῆναι is the opposite of κατασχεῖν καὶ διασώσασθαι. ἰέναι ὁμόσε—cf. c. 81, 5, obviam ire. φρονήματι καταφρονήματιπαρονομασία, in the style of Gorgias. Intr. p. lii. The antithesis between confidence and disdain is an antithesis between an instinctive feeling of superiority and a consciousness arising from knowledge of the enemy's inferiority. Cf. Livy, XXI. 41 non eo solum animo quo adversus alios hostes soletis pugnare velim; sed cum indignatione quadam atque ira, velut si servos videatis vestros arma repente contra vos ferentes.


Αὔχημα—Intr. p. liii. αὔχημα is not identified with φρόνημα, but is substituted as the natural result of it.

καὶ —‘mere.’

ἀμαθίας εὐτυχοῦς—fortune sometimes favours cowardly fools, and produces in them a habit of boasting. Pericles probably meant Cleon, and Thuc. suggests him by καὶ (= ‘even’) δειλῷ τινι. καταφρόνησις ὃς ἂν—cf. the definition in c. 44, 1. Sc. τούτῳ ἐγγίγνεται. γνώμῃ—certain knowledge, contrasted with ἀμαθία εὐ.; again suggesting Cleon, who made the un-Socratic discovery that ἀμαθία is ἀρετή! Intr. p. lxxiii.


Τόλμαν—one of the effects of καταφρόνησις, but not always of φρόνημα, which is compatible with cowardice.

ξύνεσις—stands very close to γνώμη, but only in the intellectual sense of clear insight and circumspection. For the principle that true courage is impossible without ξύνεσις, cf. c. 40, 4. (This illustrates the close connection between Ethics and Metaphysics, so often insisted upon by modern thinkers.)

ἐκ τοῦ ὑπέρφρονος—with ἐχυρωτέραν παρέχεται. ‘Intelligence gives greater solidity to courage as the result of a consciousness of superiority’; such a consciousness of superiority is therefore desirable.

ἐλπίδι—cf. V. 102 ἐπιστάμεθα τὰ τῶν πολέμων ἔστιν ὅτε κοινοτέρας τὰς τύχας λαμβάνοντα κατὰ τὸ διαφέρον ἑκατέρων πλῆθος. ‘Courage trusts not to hope because fortune has hitherto been fair (that is the strength of the helpless); rather it trusts to insight based on a survey of realities; and that is a far safer prophet.’ In this elaborate antithesis (a) blind hope is contrasted with clear insight, (b) the foundation on which hope is built is contrasted with the foundation on which insight is built, the one being treacherous (τύχη), the other being firm, (c) there is a contrast, in the form of chiasmus, between ἐλπίδι and ὑπάρχοντα, and between τύχης and γνώμη. ἀπὸ τῆς ὁμοίας τύχης—referring to 4 above; cowards boast when τύχη has been more than ὁμοία to them: the helpless hope on when τύχη has been as much as ὁμοία to them; for an equal share of Heaven's favours is enough to make them suppose they will not be destroyed But brave men, trusting in γνώμη, can bear up even under a temporary withdrawal of their share of Heaven's favour (c. 64, 2). (These words, if retained after τὴν τόλμαν, give no sense, since there is no reason why courage should come ἀπὸ ... τύχης, or why the effect of insight on courage should be limited by such a condition.)

ἀπόρῳ—neut.

γνώμῃ—Thuc. does not often contrast γνώμη with τύχη, by which γνώμη may always be over-ridden. Intr. p. xli.; I. 144, 4; V. 75 τυχῃ μὲν κακιζόμενοι, γνώμῃ δὲ οἱ αὐτοὶ ἔτι ὄντες. It is common in the orators, as Antiphon, 5, 92, Andoc. 1, 140, Lys. 34, 2, Isocr. 2, 30.

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hide References (10 total)
  • Commentary references from this page (10):
    • Andocides, On the Mysteries, 140
    • Demosthenes, Olynthiac 2, 26
    • Demosthenes, Olynthiac 3, 36
    • Isocrates, To Nicocles, 30
    • Lysias, Against the Subversion of the Ancestral Constitution of Athens, 2
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.70
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.36
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.58
    • Thucydides, Histories, 5.102
    • Thucydides, Histories, 5.75
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