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Ἑλλήνων—the following tables exhibit the Gk. cities:— I. CHALCIS in Euboea (Ionian)

Naxos, 735 Zancle, c. 715

Catana, 728 Leontini, 728 Hunera, 648

II. CORINTH (Dorian)

Syracuse, 734

Acrac, 664 Casmenae, 644 Camarma, 599

III. MEGARA (Ionian and Dorian)

Thapsus, removed to Megara Hyblaea, 726

Selmus, 628

IV RHODES (Dorian)

Gela, 688

Aciagas, 580.

The above dates are not to be considered as more than approximate.

Νάξον—never an important town. It was destroyed in 403 by Dionysins, who founded Tauromenium in its place. Though the site of N. is now occupied by orange-groves, there are remains of the ancient walls. Pausanias exaggerates when he says that there were no traces of the city in his day. (Such exaggeration by Pausanias is found in other cases.)

Ἀπόλλωνος—thus Naxos remained the spiritual centre of Greek Sicily, though it was not the political centre. Freeman well compares the position of Canterbury.

ὅστις—a strange use of ὅστις, the ordinary rules for which as a relative are as follows:—1. Referring to an indefinite antecedent: (a)=such that, as in οὐδεὶς οὕτως ἠλίθιος ὅστις οὔχι κἂν πρῶτος εἰσενέγκαι. (Thus ὅστις often replaces ὤστε after οὕτως.) (b)=whoever, as in ὅστις ἂν . 2. Referring to a definite antecedent: (a)=quippe qui. (b)=of the kind that, any that. It has been supposed that Thuc. took at least this note from Antiochus of Syracuse, because Dion. Hal. I. 12 quotes from him the expression τὴν γῆν ταύτην ἥτις νῦν Ἰταλία καλεῖται, and the inference is that Antiochus used ὅστις for ὅς. On the other hand, Dion. Hal. is scarcely to be trusted in a minute linguistic point, and it is strange that Thuc., even though he may have used Antiochus, should follow him in such a use of ὅστις. Stein on Herod. IV. 8 collects exx. of ὅστις for ὅς after οὗτος in Herod. We may compare with this the use of σφῶν in Thuc. for ἑαυτῶν or σφῶν αὐτῶν, and of ὅδε, τοιόσδε, τοσόσδε referring to what precedes (cf. c. 2 end). All these uses are charaeteristic of Ionic rather than of Attic.

τῆς πόλεως—Naxos no longer existed after 403 B.C., and Tanromenium did not stand on the same site. Hence this appears to have been written before 403.

θεωροί—to festivals and to distant shrines.


Συρακούσας—the brevity of this notice of the foundation and growth of S. is in striking contrast with the prolixity of modern historians when they introduce the antagonists of ancient powers

τοῦ ἐχομένου —an unusual phrase, found only here. Thuc. generally writes τοῦ ἐπιγιγνομένου .

Ἡρακλειδῶν—of these one branch, the Bacchiadae, had recently established an oligarchy at Corinth, and it is probable that Archias was himself a Bacchiad.

νήσου—Ortygia, to which modern Syracuse is confined. Livy, XXV. 24 insula quam ipsi Nason vocant.

περικλυζομένῃ—about 540 B.C. Ortygia was joined to the mainland by a mole. Cf. the lines of Ibyeus of Rhegium quoted by the Schol. on Pind. Nem. I. 1 . . παρὰ χέρσον | λίθινον ἐκλεκτὸν παλάμαισι βροτῶν . . But in Cicero's day the mole had been replaced by a bridge. At the present day the junction is a mole. Freeman, Sicily II, Note XV.

ἔξω—Achradina, a name first found in Polybius. It probably included the ‘eastern part of the hill and the low ground between the hill and the island.’ (The precise extent of Achradina is a matter of dispute. See Freeman II. Note V. It was joined to the island by Gelon (485-478), the ‘second founder’ of Syracuse.)

προστειχισθεῖσα—‘this προστειχισμός I understaud to be the work of Gelôn. He joined Ortygia and Upper Achradina by fortifying Lower Achradina.’ Freeman II. p. 447.

πολυάνθρωπος—cf. [Demosth.] and c. Neaeram 75, a speech that contains imitations of Thuc., Θησεὺς συνῴκισεν αὐτοὺς καὶ δημοκρατίαν ἐποίησε καὶ πόλις πολυάνθρωπος ἑγένετο: Xen. Vect. 4, 50 ἰσχυρῶς γὰρ ἂν καὶ αὕτη πολυάνθρωπος γένοιτο πόλις.


Θουκλῆς δὲ καὶ οἱ Χαλκιδῆς—this passage is introduced as separate from the previous statement about Thucles. Hence the article is not required with Θ.: on the other hand, the article is always inserted with proper names when any special definiteness attaches to them, as here where a special class of Chalcidians is meant, viz. those who had founded Naxos. ὁρμηθέντεςὁρμῶμαι, like many other verbs with pass. aorists, is really passive. See Rutherford, New Phryn. p. 188.

ἔτει πέμπτῳ—the art. is generally omitted with ἔτει and μηνί.

μετὰ Σ. οἰκ—Index S.V. μετά: this predicative use of the partic. after a prep. is much less common in Gk. than in Lat. It is generally found in expressions indicating time, and oftenest with ἐπί (gen.) or ἅμα. M.T. § 829. (See some characteristic remarks by Prof. Gildersleeve in A.J.P. July 1892, p. 358.)

Λεοντίνους—close to the modern Lentini. It was the only Gk. city of Sicily that was inland. For its opposition to Syracuse see c. 6 § 2.

Κατάνην—the modern Catania, which dates only from the earthquake of 1693. The city has survived many terrible disasters, due partly to its wars, and partly to its proximity to Aetna.

οἰκιστὴν ἐποιήσαντο—presently οἰκιστὰς ποιήσαντες, the active being used of the founders who make the appointment for a colony, the mid. of the citizens who choose for themselves ‘Some distinction,’ says Freeman, ‘is here hinted at between the foundation of Leontinoi and the foundation of Katanê. It may point to some possible dissension or secession.’

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