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ἄνδρες—quidam, hinting, as that word sometimes does, at definite opponents.
ἤτοι . . ἤ—c. 34, 2. καὶ δέδοικα μέντοι—‘and I really fear lest their repeated efforts may at last be crowned with success’ (Wilkins). This is the affirmative μέντοι, as in answers of assent. ἡμεῖς δὲ κακοί—‘we show no spirit in taking precautions before we suffer, or in stopping such men when we detect them.’ αἰσθόμενοι is opposed to πρὶν ἐν τῷ παθεῖν ὦμεν—for which see c. 10, 5.
δι᾽ αὐτά—going back to τάδε κινοῦσι e. 36, 2. ‘Hence it is that such sehemes allow our state but seldom to rest.’ τυρραννίδας—such as Gelon and Hieron: δυναστείας— such as the power of the aristocratic party of Hermocrates.
ὧν—with τι below. περιιδεῖν γενέσθαι—the infin. after περιορᾶν occurs only in Herod. and Thuc.; the verb then=ἐᾶν. M.T. § 903, 6. ὑμᾶς μὲν τοὺς πολλούς—contrasted with τοὺς δ᾽ αὖ ὀλίγους, who are also meant in τοὺς . . . μηχανωμένους. Weil's conjecture (see crit. note) is necessary because there is no distinction between the plotters and the oligarchs, and because only the people can be said κολάζειν. αὐτοφώρους—correspouds to αἰσθόμενοι ἐπεζελθεῖν above, and ὧν βούλονται μὲν κτλ. to προφυλάζασθαι. ὧν βούλονται—after κολάζειν. Cf. II. 74, 3 τῆς ἀδικίας κολάζεσθαι. So ὧν δρᾷ and διανοίας depend on προαμύνεσθαι. εἴπερ καί—‘inasmuch as.’ τὰ μὲν ἐλέγχων—‘now by convicting them (when they have formed a design), now by watching them (to keep them from forming one), now by counselling them (to change their methods).’
καὶ δῆτα—he proceeds to give an instance τοῦ διδάσκειν. The use of δῆτα is in emphatic statements, questions, and appeals. νεώτεροι—the younger members of the oligarchic party. πότερον—there follows an example of ὑποφορά, altercatio, in which an orator puts words into an opponent's mouth and supplies the answer. ἀτιμάζειν—infin. of purpose, ‘to keep out of office.’ ἰσονομεῖσθαι—liberty and equality, ἐλευθερία and ἰσονομία, were the cardinal principles of Greek democracy. τοὺς αὐτούς—members of the same state.
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