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The Athenians purify the island of Delos, and institute the Delian Penteteris.

Δῆλον ἐκάθηραν: cf. i. 8. 3; Diod. xii. 58; Strab. p. 486, and see Curtius, Hist. of Greece, iii. p. 142. The occasion of this extraordinary homage to Apollo was doubtless the pestilence, which had reappeared in 427-26 B.C. (c. 87. § 1-3) with undiminished force, and the object of the festival seems to have been, not to give thanks to the god for the cessation of the plague, but to bring about its cessation. So at least Diodorus, l.c., represents the matter, and the narrative of Thuc. seems compatible with this view. For there is no reason why the beginning of the period during which the pestilence raged the second time (οὐκ ἔλασσον ἐνιαυτοῦ, c. 87. 4) should not be put far back into the winter of 427-26 B.C., whereas the purification of Delos must have been taken in hand early in the winter of 426-25, since acc. to c. 102. § 7; 105. § 1 the irruption of the Ambraciots into the territory of Argos (c. 105. § 1) could have happened only shortly after the end of the preceding summer. So it was deemed proper to propitiate the wrath of the god, to which many had ascribed the pestilence (cf. ii. 54. § 4 f.), in esp. solemn wise. The oracle directing the purification may have had some connexion with Nicias's influence at that time. Cf. Thuc. vii. 50. 30 ἦν γάρ τι καὶ ἄγαν θειασμῷ τε καὶ τῷ τοιούτῳ προσκείμενος. The interest manifested by Thuc. in the occurrence was prob. due not only to its historical importance, but also to the wish to correct erroneous views of his contemporaries with regard to earlier and later Δήλια. Hence here, as in vi. 54 ff., the digression with all its details is justifiable. See A. Baumeister, Hymn. Hom. p. 113, against G. Hermann, Philol. i. p. 372 (= Opusc. viii. p. 388 f.).—2.

δή: in a supplementary explanation (cf. i. 24. 5; ii. 102. 28); not ironical, as Bl. thought possible. —3.

Πεισίστρατος . . . οὐχ ἅπασαν: cf. Hdt. i. 64. 10 καθήρας δὲ ὧδε: ἐπ̓ ὅσον ἔποψις τοῦ ἱροῦ εἶχε, ἐκ τούτου τοῦ χώρου παντὸς ἐξορύξας τοὺς νεκροὺς μετεφόρεε ἐς ἄλλον χῶρον τῆς Δήλου.—4. ὅσον . . . τῆς νήσου: cf. ἐπ̓ ὅσον . . . τοῦ ἱροῦ, just cited from Hdt., and Thuc. vii. 37. 6 προσῆγε τῷ τείχει τῶν Ἀθηναίων, καθ̓ ὅσον πρὸς τὴν πόλιν αὐτοῦ ἑώρα.

θῆκαι ὅσαι: without γάρ after τοιῷδε. See on c. 92. 2; 97. 1. The subst. thus placed acquires a char acter of generality, with nearly the effect of a part. gen. Cf. c. 113. 21, and see on i. 1. 8. θῆκαι means here, doubtless, movable coffins, as in i. 8. 4; v. 1. 6, not “graves,” as in c. 58. 15. As to such coffins, see Müller, Handbuch iv. p. 463 b.—6.

ἀνεῖλον: as in i. 8. 4; v. 1. 6.—

τὸ λοιπόν: to be construed with ἐναποθνῄσκειν and ἐντίκτειν. Cf. Diod. l.c. μήτε τίκτειν ἐν Δήλῳ μήτε θάπτειν, Strabo 486 c οὐ γὰρ ἔξεστιν ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ Δήλῳ θάπτειν οὐδὲ καίειν νεκρόν.—προεῖπον: of a distinctly expressed order, as i. 45. 6.— 8.

ἐς τὴν Ῥήνειαν: cf. Strabo l.c. ὅπου τὰ μνήματα τοῖς Δηλίοις ἐστίν.—διακομίζεσθαι: sc. τούς τε ἀποθνῄσκοντας καὶ τὰς τικτούσας.—9. οὕτως ὀλίγον: four stadia, acc. to Strabo l.c.—

Πολυκράτης . . . τῷ Ἀπόλλωνι τῷ Δηλίῳ: cf. i. 13. § 6.—10.

ἰσχύσας τινὰ χρόνον ναυτικῷ: who for some time was powerful in naval affairs. Cf. ναυτικῷ ἰσχύων, i. 13. 28. The temporal modifier (τινα χρόνον) makes the above rendering seem necessary (cf. ἐκράτησάν τινα χρόνον, i. 13. 27); though Cl., Kr., and Bm. take the aor. partic. as ingressive, like ἄρξας in —11.

Νήσων: for the vulg. νή<*>ων, since here, as in i. 13. 29; vii. 57. 15, and freq., not islands in general, but only the Cyclades are to be understood. See Steup, Rh. Mus. xxv. p. 328, N.—

ἄρξας: = ὑπηκόους ποιησάμενος (i. 13. 29), as the connexion with ἑλών shows. Cf. i. 4. 3. This ingressive force is nearly confined to the first aor. GMT. 55; H. 841.— 12.

ἁλύσει δήσας πρὸς τὴν Δῆλον: the chief stress of the sent. is on these words. The chaining of Rhenea to Delos indicates the proximity of the two islands.—

ἁλύσει δήσας: ‘as a symbolical expression of indissoluble union.’ Curtius, ii. p. 142. Weiske (N. Jahrbb. cxxxvii. p. 555 f.) explains the ἁλύσει δήσας as symbolically indicating the hanging up or setting up of an offering in the precinets of the temple of the god (ἀνατιθέναι). But that ἀνατιθέναι does not necessarily imply a hanging up or setting up of something in a sacred precinct, or indeed any local connexion with such a precinct, but may have the general meaning “consecrate,” is clear from i. 13. 29 Ῥήνειαν ἑλὼν ἀνέθηκε τῷ Ἀπόλλωνι τῷ Δηλίῳ, where the manner of the consecration must have been stated, had ἀνατιθέναι only the narrower meaning claimed by Weiske. Cf. Hdt. <*>6 5 <*>ὴν <*>ό <*> Ἀρτέμιδι.—13. τὴν πεντετηρίδα . . .

οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι: the quadrennial festival was celebrated by the Athenians then for the first time after the purification. τὴν πεντετηρίδα, cf. Poll. viii. 107. ποιεῖν, not the mid., of the celebration of a festival, as in ii. 15. 17; Plato Rep. 327 a. Cf. also l. 17; ii. 15. 24; v. 80. 18; vi. 28. 4; 58. 10. Since the celebration of the festival, acc. to the present passage, followed directly upon the purification undertaken at the beginning of the winter (see on l. 1), it could not have occurred, as Boeckh thinks (Sthlt. d. Athen. ii.^{2} p. 82), in the Attic month Thargelion, and hardly, as C. Robert conjectures (Hermes xxi. p. 161 ff.), in Anthesterion.—14. [

τὰ Δήλια]: rightly bracketed by v. H., Stud. Thuc. p. 48, as a gloss to τὴν πεντετηρίδα. The context renders the addition unnecessary; besides, the term τὰ Δήλια was not restricted to the πεντετηρίς. Cf. Xen. Mem. iv. 8. 2.

ξύνοδος ἐς τὴν Δῆλον: as i. 96. 10 ξύνοδοι ἐς τὸ ἱερὸν ἐγίγνοντο, and, similarly, l. 17 ἐς τὰ Ἐφέσια, sc. ἐθεώρουν (cf. viii. 10. 2).—

τῶν Ἰώνων kte(.: acc. to l. 40, mention of the Athenians might have been expected here. Possibly Ἀθηναίων καὶ has dropped out after καί. Ἰώνων refers, as Ἴωνες in l. 17, to the Ionians of Asia Minor. These Ionians, whose participation in the older festival was one of the chief distinctions between that and the later (1.39 ff.), are esp. emphasized by τε, which would naturally follow directly after the art. belonging to both nouns. Cf. i. 6. 2.—

περικτιόνων νησιωτῶν: i.e. the inhabitants of the Cyclades. περικτίονες, found only here in Thuc., is poetic (Hom. P 220; Σ 212; β 65), and possibly taken from some ancient hymn.—16.

ξύν τε γὰρ kte(.: in explanation of μεγάλη ξύνοδος (cf. l. 39).—

ἐθεώρουν: of the whole celebration of the festival, as in v. 18. 4; 50. 8. θεωρεῖν ἐς also viii. 10. 2; Ar. Vesp. 1183; Luc. Tim. 50.—17.

τὰ Ἐφέσια: sc. at the temple of Artemis; of which Dion. H. (iv. 25) gives a similar deseription.—

ἀγὼν ἐποιεῖτο: a contest was instituted. Cf. l. 43; v. 80. 17, and see on 18.

χοροὺς ν ῆγον: brought out, conducted, choral dances. Cf. Hes. Sc. 280; Callim. Del. 279 πᾶσαι δὲ χοροὺς ἀνάγουσι, Eur. Troad. 325 πάλλε πόδ̓ αἰθέριον, ἄναγε χορόν, 332 χόρευε, μᾶτερ, ἄναγε. Hdt. has ὁρτὴν ἀνάγειν (ii. 40. 4; 48. 4; 61. 2). Cf. ὁρτάζουσι μεγάλας ἀνάγοντες θυσίας, Hdt. ii. 60. 13.

Ὅμηρος: clearly regarded by Thuc. as the author of the hymn here cited. How definite a personality he was to Thuc., is shown esp. by See Sengebusch, Hom. Diss. i. p. 140.—

ἐν τοῖς ἔπεσι: τὰ ἔπη used by Thuc. only of verses or poetic expressions. Cf. i. 3. 16; ii. 41. 14; 54. 4, and see on c. 67. 31.—20.

ἐκ προοιμίου: Schol. ἐξ ὕμνου: τοὺς γὰρ ὕμνους προοίμια ἐκάλουν, i.e. introductions to the recitation of other songs. See Wolf, Proleg. ad Hom. p. evii. The two following citations are from the hymn to the Delian Apollo, 146 ff. and 165 ff. Several deviations in Thuc.'s version from that of the hymn are due without doubt to his following a different original, not to quoting from memory. See Baumeister, ibid. p. 141; Guttmann, de Hymn. Hom. Hist. Crit. p. 17 sq.; Bücheler, Coniectanea (Index Schol., Bonn, W. 1878-79), p. 3 sq.—21.

ἀλλ̓ ὅτε: most recent editors write ἄλλοτε, with Camerarius; but even thus, Steup thinks, no proper connexion with the preceding verses is established (see Gemoll, Hom. Hymnen, p. 143). He proposes, therefore, ἀλλ̓ ὅτι, and to take ἔνθα of l. 22 not as rel., but dem., as in l. 24.—23.

ἄγυιαν: i.e. the street leading to the temple. —25.

καθέσωσιν ἀγῶνα: certamen instituant. Guttmann, p. 22, compares Hom. ψ 258 <*>ανεν εὐρὺν <*> ῶνα.

καὶ μουσικῆς ἀγών: in l. 24 f. only a γυμνικὸς ἀγών (πυγμαχίῃ) was implied beyond all doubt, since ὀρχηστυῖ καὶ ἀοιδῇ might refer to the χοροί of l. 18 (cf. l. 40). Thuc. adds, therefore, special testimony for the musical contests.—

ἀγωνιούμενοι: sc. μουσικήν. Cf. l. 34 f.—27.

τὸν . . . χορὸν τῶν γυναικῶν: hymn v. 156164.—28.

ἐτελεύτα . . . ἐς τάδε τὰ ἔπη: cf. ii. 51. 5; iv. 48. 23 ἐς τοῦτο ἐτελ<*>ίτα, Soph. O. C. 476 τὸ δ᾽ ἔνθεν ποῖ τελευτῆσαί με χρή;—τοῦ ἐπαίνου: sc. τοῦ τῶν γυναικῶν. For the gen. with τελευτᾶν, see on c. 59. 19. —33.

ἄλλος ἐπελθών: Bücheler, ibid. p. 4, proposes ἄλλοθεν ἐλθών.

τοσαῦτα μέν: adv. so far.—

ἐτεκμηρίωσεν: used by Thuc. alone of Attic writers, and only of Homer's evidence. Cf. i. 3. 12; 9. 24. It is common in the writers of the κοινὴ διάλεκτος.—40. μεθ̓ ἱερῶν: i.e. with the sacrifices and all that pertained to the festal offerings.—41.

καὶ τὰ πλεῖστα: and indeed most things, as Bm. explains. Not only did the contests fall into disuse, but the Ionians came no more, women and children were no longer brought along, and otherwise the number of participants seems to have greatly diminished. Cl. explained as = vel plurima, with St., a sort of limiting appos. to τὰ περὶ τοὺς ἀγῶνας. But the ἀγῶνες unquestionably ceased entirely. For this reason Kr. is certainly wrong in bracketing καί.—42. πρὶν δή: until, see on c. 29. 5.—

τὸν ἀγῶνα: i.e. the contest held afterwards every four years.—43.

ἐποίησαν: see on

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