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Eurylochus, with the Peloponnesians, marches safely from Proschium in Aetolia through Acarnania and Agrais to Amphilochia, and unites with the Ambraciols in Olpae.

οἱ μετ̓ Εὐρυλόχου Πελοποννή-

σιοι: cf. c. 102. 26.—2.

τοὺς ἐν Ὄλπαις . . . ἥκοντας: that the Ambraciots had arrived at Olpae, lit. that the Ambraciots in Olpae had arrived. This is a case of anticipation. Kühn. 447, N. 4.—3.

ἐκ τοῦ Προσχίου: sc. τῆς Αἰτωλίας. Cf. c. 102. 21.—4.

τὸν Ἀχελῷον: i.e. the boundary of Acarnania.—

οὔσης ἐρήμου: i.e. without military protection, since the population able to bear arms had gone to Argos. Cf. ii. 81. 7 (where the adj. has the fem. ending).—6.

τὴν Στρατίων πόλιν: μεγίστην τῆς Ἀκαρνανίας, ii. 80. 38.—

τὴν φρουρὰν αὐτῶν: sc. τῶν Στρατίων, i.e. the garrison of the city.

τῆς Φυτίας: the reading of all the Mss., though Polyb. (iv. 63. 7, 10) has Φοιτίαι and Steph. Byz. Φοιτίαι and Φοίτιον. Several inscriptions, too, read Φοι- (see Oberhummer, Akarnanien, p. 38), though local coins have ΦΥ- (see Head, Hist. Numorum, p. 281). The reference is to the territory belonging to the place, as also in the case of Μ<*>δ<*>ῶνος and Αιμναίας. See on c. 91. 11, 15.—

Μεδεῶνος: Polybius calls the place Μεδίων (Steph. Byz.), the inhabitants Μεδιώνιοι, the district Μεδιωνία, and Livy also (xxxvi. 11 sq.) has Medion and Medionii.—9.

παῤ ἔσχατα: i.e. to the frontier. Cf. viii. 95. 19 ἐπ̓ ἔσχατα.—διὰ Λιμναίας: cf. ii. 80. 37. This is the name both of a place and of the whole swampy lowland on the southern slopes of the Thyamus mountains. See Bursian i. p. 110. —10.

τῆς Ἀγραίων: this district, which in c. 111. 18 is called Ἀγραΐς, and had a king of its own, Salynthius, must be sought, acc. to ii. 102. 13 (where the Agraeans are placed between the Dolopians and Amphilochians), north of the road followed up to this point. Eurylochus made, evidently to avoid the Acarnanian garrison at Crenae (c. 105. 10), a detour through the mountains and from there descended into the Argive district, and thence marched along the coast to Olpae.—

οὐκέτι Ἀκαρνανίας: chorographi<*> gen., to which in the next clause an adj. corresponds. Strabo, p. 449 c, calls the Agraeans Αἰτωλικὸν <*>῎θνος. They belonged to the ἐπίκτητος Αἰτωλία. See Bursian i. p. 140.

λαβόμενοι τοῦ . . . ὄρους: see on c. 24. 10.—11.

τοῦ Θυάμου ὄρους: now Σπαρτοβοῦνι, forming the northeast boundary of Acarnania toward Aetolia, but belonging for the most part to the Agraean district. Hence O. Müller's conjecture (Dorians ii.^{2} p. 529; see Bursian i. p. 105, N. 1), Ἀγραϊκόν, has been adopted for ἀγροῖκον of the Mss. See App.—12.

νυκτὸς ἤδη: already night. For other examples of ἤδη thus used, see on i. 30. 20.—13.

τῆς . . . φυλακῆς: sc. which awaited the advance of Eurylochus on the direct road from Limnaea to Argos. Cf. c. 105. § 2.—14.

προσέμειξαν τοῖς . . . Ἀμπρακιώταις: joined the Ambraciots in Olpae. Cf. v. 58. 3 βουλόμενοι τοῖς ἄλλοις προσμεῖξαι. 107, 108. Demosthenes, elected commander-in-chief by the Acarnanians, by means of a skilfully-planned ambush wins a decisive victory over the Peloponnesians and Ambraciots.

γενόμενοι ἁθρόοι: sc. the Ambraciots and Peloponnesians.—2.

καθίζουσιν: encamp, intr. as in iv. 93. 5. The const. καθίζειν στρατόν is more freq. in Thuc. (ii. 71. 4; iv. 90. 5; v. 7. 14; vi. 66. 2; vii. 82. 16).—

τὴν Μητρόπολιν: seems from the context (cf. l. 13) to have been a place very near Olpae.—3.

ταῖς εἴκοσι ναυσίν: cf. c. 105. 15.—4.

τὸν Ἀμπρακικόν: sc. κόλπον, which a few Mss. have in the text. But a copyist would be much more likely to add than omit it. Ἀμπρακικός alternates with Ἀμπρακικὸς κόλπος (i. 29. 11; 55. 3; ii. 68. 9; iv. 49. 3), as Ἰόνιος (vi. 30. 6; 34. 24; 104. 10; vii. 33. 14) with Ἰόνιος κόλπος (i. 24. 1; ii. 97. 26; vi. 13. 11; 44. 8; vii. 57. 57). See also App. on ii. 92. 22.—5.

καὶ Δημοσθένης kte(.: Demosthenes (sc. παραγίγνεται ἐς τὸν Ἀμπρακικόν) came from Naupactus (cf. c. 102. § 3) with two hundred Messenian hoplites and sixty Athenian bowmen. As was remarked on c. 105. 13, he could hardly have brought these troops, if he was no longer general. From, the manner in which he is mentioned here after the twenty ships, it seems impossible that his sixty bowmen were taken from these ships. Probably there was at that time an Athenian garrison permanently stationed at Naupactus, so that he, even after the return (c. 98. 25) of the thirty ships of c. 91. 1, had control of some Athenian forces. —

Μεσσηνίων: see on c. 94. 15.

τὰς Ὄλπας τὸν λόφον: = τὸ τεῖχος ἐπὶ τοῦ λόφου (c. 105. 5), τὸν λόφον being appos. to τὰς Ὄλπας. Kr. Spr. 50, 7, 2. Steup follows v. H. in bracketing τὸν λόφον, on the ground that, after c. 105. 4 καταλαμβάνουσιν Ὄλπας, τεῖχος ἐπὶ λόφου ἰσχυρὸν πρὸς τῇ θαλάσσῃ), the expression περὶ τὰς Ὄλπας ἐκ θαλάσσης ἐφώρμουν needs no explanation, and, if it did, that this would hardly be added in the form of a simple appositive (τὸν λόφον).—8.

Ἀμφιλόχων: the inhabitants of the whole district, whose chief city was Argos. They remained βάρβαροι even after Argos had become hellenized, ii. 68. 14.—9.

οἱ πλείους . . . κατείχοντο: they were kept from taking part in the war by the fact that the Ambraciots had seized their territory or taken hostages from them. Cf. c. 114. 19.—10.

ἤδη ξυνεληλυθότες: the Acarnanians of Crenae (c. 105. 10; 106. 14) had also meanwhile gone to Argos, to whose aid the rest of the Acarnanians marched at the outset (c. 105. 9 οἱ μὲν ἐς Ἄργος ξυνεβοήθουν).—11.

τοῦ παντὸς ξυμμαχικοῦ: of the whole allied army, i.e. of all the Acarnanian and Amphilochian forces. Cf. i. 62. 5 στρατηγὸν τοῦ πεζοῦ παντὸς οἱ ξύμμαχοι ᾕρηντο Ἀριστέα.—12. Δημοσθένην: the form Δημοσθένη, of the most and best Mss., is against the usage of Thuc.—

μετὰ τῶν σφετέρων στρατηγῶν: i.e. these commanded the various contingents under Demosthenes as general-in-chief.

προσαγαγών: without obj., as ducere, only here in Thuc.—

τῆς Ὄλπης: see on c. 105. 5.—14.

χαράδρα: see on c. 25. 4; 98. 7.—15.

ἐτάσσοντο: introductory impf., the details following. Cf. l. 22 ᾖσαν ἐς χεῖρας. See on c. 92. 2.—

ὡς ἐς μάχην: with the intention to fight, as i. 62. 20; iv. 93. 6; vi. 67. 2. Cf. ὡς ἐπὶ ναυμαχίαν, i. 48. 2, and see on c. 4. 6.—16.

καὶ (

μεῖζον γὰρ kte(.): paratactic structure of the period, just as in c. 70. 11; i. 31. 7; hence here too the causal sent. must be regarded as parenthetical. —

περιέσχε: intr. extended beyond, out-flanked, as in c. 108. 1; v. 71. 12, 16, and περιίσχειν, v. 71. 4. Schol. ὑπερέτεινεν, ὑπερέσχεν. The aors. ἐγένετο and περιέσχε express a result of the drawing up (ἐτάσσοντο).—18.

λοχίζει: in insidiis collocat. ἐνέδραν καθίζει, Schol. Cf. λοχισθέντες (ambushed), v. 115. 2; Dio C. xli. 51; ἐλόχισε, distributed into companies, Hdt. i. 103. 4.—

κοίλην καὶ λοχμώδη: cf. Dio c. 13, 9 ἐν κοίλῳ τινὶ καὶ λοχμώδει τόπῳ, 1279, 17 ἐς κοῖλόν τινα καὶ λοχμώδη τόπον, Polyaen. iii. 1. 2 ἐς τὸ κοῖλον καὶ λοχμῶδες ἐνελόχισεν ὁπλίτας καὶ ψιλοὺς τετρακοσίους. λοχμώδης occurs only here in Thuc.—20.

κατὰ τὸ ὑπερέχον: i.e. at the part of the enemy's line which extended beyond their own and threatened to outflank them. Cf. Polyaen. l.c. ὅπως, ἐπειδὰν ὑπερφαλαγγήσωσιν οἱ ἐναντίοι κατὰ τὸ ὑπερβάλλον αὐτῶν, ἐξαναστάντες κατὰ νώτου γένοιντο. For similar consts., cf. l. 29; i. 48. 10, 12; 62. 24; iv. 36. 7; v. 71. 22. For ὑπερέχον, cf. viii. 104. 15. Acc. to c. 108. 2, it was the left wing, not, as was usually the case, the right (cf. v. 71. § 1).—

ἐξαναστάντες: rushing out from their ambush. Cf. Xen. Hell. iv. 8. 37.— 21.

οὗτοι: for which Hude (Comm. Crit. p. 116 sq.) proposed οὕτω, is opposed to the remaining troops of Demosthenes.—

κατὰ νώτου: as in c. 108. 4; i. 62. 13, etc. κατὰ νῶτον, which some good Mss. have, is contrary to Thuc.'s usage.

ἐπεὶ δὲ παρεσκεύαστο ἀμφοτέροις: for the impers. pass., see on c. 22. 1. —22.

ᾖσαν ἐς χεῖρας: see on —23.

ἔχων: the regular verb in such tactical statements. See on i. 48. 10. —

Ἀθηναίων ὀλίγων: Steup thinks that, as the small number of Athenian bowmen (sixty) has already been stated in l. 6, and there was no cause for emphasizing their fewness here, whereas one might have expected some mention of the Amphilochians that were not ἀκοντισταί, prob. some words have been lost between Ἀθηναίων and ὀλίγων,—perhaps καὶ Ἀμφιλόχων ὁπλιτῶν or καὶ Ἀμφιλόχων σφενδονητῶν. That the main body of the Amphilochians were ψιλοί, is clear from c. 112. 20.—24.

τὸ ἄλλο: i.e. the centre and left.—24.

ὡς ἕκαστοι τεταγμένοι: i.e. arrayed by tribes and under their own leaders (l. 12). —25.

ἐπεῖχον: occupied, as in i. 48. 7; Hdt. ix. 31. 7.—

Πελοποννήσιοι

δὲ καὶ Ἀμπρακιῶται: sc. ᾖσαν ἐς χεῖρας, not the nearest but the most important verb being understood.— 26.

ἀναμίξ: only here in Thuc. Cf. Hdt. i. 103. 6; vii. 40. 4.—26.

πλὴν Μαντινέων . . . ἦσαν: acc. to these words, as well as c. 108. 16; 109. 12; 111. 2, 14; 113. 4, a considerable portion of the Peloponnesians under Eurylochus must have been Mantineans.—27.

οὗτοι δέ: epexegetical, as in c. 34. 4; i. 26. 23; 143. 20.—

οὐ τὸ κέρας ἄκρον ἔχοντες: pred., like ἔσχατον, having not the extreme point of the wing. G. 978, 1; H. 671; Kr. Spr. 50, 11, 5.—29.

οἱ μετ̓ αὐτοῦ: this part of the army, which in c. 108. 6 is described as τὸ κατ̓ Εὐρύλοχον καὶ κράτιστον ἦν, acc. to what goes before must have consisted of contingents from various states. Some statement as to its composition might have been expected.—

κατὰ Μεσσηνίους: see on l. 20.

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