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Menedaius, who assumes command after the death of Eurylochus and Macarius, makes a secret agreement by which he and a part of the Peloponnesians are allowed to withdraw undisturbed.

Μενεδάϊος: see on c. 100. 11.— 2.

αὐτός: alone. Cf. c. 27. 9; i. 139. 15; iv. 49. 5; v. 60. 4; vi. 37. 3.—

παρειληφώς: not παραλαβών, since this act stands for itself, without causal connexion with προσφέρει λόγον.—3. μεγάλης ἥσσης γεγενημένης: the art., though it would be in order, is not necessary. Cf. i. 18. 15, and see on ii. 5. 13.—

ὅτῳ τρόπῳ: with fut. ind. for the more usual ὅπως. See on i. 107. 18.—

πολιορκήσεται: pass. and with the same meaning, as in c. 52. 2. —4.

ἔκ τε γῆς καὶ ἐκ θαλάσσης: answers to πανταχόθεν, v. 60. 12; viii. 42. 14.—5.

ἀποκεκλῃμένος: pf. partic. because he is already in this situation.—6.

προσφέρει λόγον: as in viii. 32. 12; Hdt. iii. 134. 3; v. 30. 15; more freq. λόγους, c. 4. 8; i. 57. 11; ii. 70. 6.

τοὺς ἀποθανόντας: the fallen, almost a subst., as in c. 113. 23; ii. 34. 2. It is a relic of the Hom. usage; cf. H 457 τὸ γὰρ γέρας ἐστὶ θανόντων. See Classen, Beob. über den Hom. Sprachgebrauch, p. 57 ff.—

μάλιστα: see on c. 21. 4.—10.

ἀναχώρησιν: for acc. with σπένδεσθαι, see on c. 24. 19.—

ἐκ τοῦ προφανοῦς: as c. 43. 10; viii. 68. 2. See on c. 43. 5; 82. 48. —12.

μετὰ τῶν ξυστρατήγων Ἀκαρνάνων: cf. c. 107. 12. For the gen. Ἀκαρνάνων, see on c. 92. 19. On the recessive accent here and ii. 58. 2, see Göttling, p. 321.—

σπένδονται: pl. after Δημοσθένης μετὰ τῶν ξυστρατήγων. A rare const., the more striking since βουλόμενος (l. 15) agrees only with Δημοσθένης. Kr. Spr. 63, 4, 3; Kühn. 359, N. 5. Cf. Xen. Hell. i. 1. 10 Ἀλκιβιάδης ἐκ Σάρδεων μετὰ Μαντιθέου ἵππων εὐπορήσαντες ἀπέδρασαν. Steup would prefer σπένδεται, on the ground that the pl. conflicts with the manifest intention to emphasize Demosthenes, as shown by the addition of Δημοσθένης μετὰ τῶν ξυστρατήγων Ἀκαρνάνων after ἐσπείσαντο.—13. τοῖς ἄλλοις ἄρχουσι: i.e. the higher officers. Cf. c. 30. 1; v. 9. 33; vi. 32. 7. —14.

ἀξιολογώτατοι: most influential, as ii. 10. 11.—

ἀποχωρεῖν: inf. after σπένδονται, as iv. 114. 9; vii. 83. 4; σπείσασθαι . . . μὴν ἐμμενεῖν, iv. 118. 57.—15.

ψιλῶσαι: only here in Thuc. μονῶσαι, ψιλοὺς τῶν ξυμμάχων ποιῆσαι, Schol. Cf. Hdt. ii. 151. 17; Xen. Cyr. iv. 5. 12. The synonymous μονοῦν is used in Attic only in the passive.—16.

τὸν μισθοφόρον ὄχλον: understood by Bl., Cl., and Jow. as mercenaries in the pay of the Ambraciots, prob. from the neighbouring Epirot tribes, and constituting part of the 3000 hoplites of c. 105. 3. This view assumes that the Peloponnesians were all included in the secret agreement. ‘The subject of ἀποχωρεῖν is “the Peloponnesians” to be supplied from “the leaders of the Peloponnesians.” Demosthenes negotiated with the Mantineans, Menedaius, and the leaders of the Peloponnesians, not for their personal safety only, but for the safe withdrawal of their forces; the Ambraciots, their allies, being left to their fate.’ (Jow.) But Steup holds that τὸν μισθοφόρον ὄχλον covers all the army of Menedaius that were not Mantineans or ἄρχοντες or ἀξιολογώτατοι. His grounds are viz.: that not all the Peloponnesians were included in the agreement is clear both from the plain meaning of l. 12 ff. and from the expressions οἶς ἐδέδοτο ἀποχώρησις, l. 21, and οἱ Μαντινῆς καὶ οἶς ἔσπειστο, c. 111. 2. Later, it is true, those entitled to withdraw are designated simply as οἱ Πελοποννήσιοι (c. 111. 10), or οἱ Μαντινῆς καὶ οἱ Πελοποννήσιοι (c. 111. 14), but again in c. 113. 4 they are called οἱ Μαντινῆς καὶ οἱ ὑπόσπονδοι, and in c. 114. 10 the remnants of the other part of the army are spoken of as οἱ ὡς Σαλύνθιον καταφυγόντες Ἀμπρακιῶται καὶ Πελοποννήσιοι. A comparison with vii. 57. 48 makes it prob. that the Mantineans also were mercenaries. The τρισχίλιοι ὁπλῖται τῶν ξυμμάχων under Eurylochus's command (c. 100. 7) seem, then, to have been all mercenaries, just as Brasidas led, along with 700 Helots, also 1000 Peloponnesian mercenaries to the Thracian coast (iv. 78. 2; 80. 21). That the passage assumes as known that the Peloponnesian army was composed of mercenaries, though no mention is made of this fact, must be attributed, doubtless, to the lack of a final revision of his work by the author.—[

τὸν ξενικόν]: rightly bracketed by v. H. (Stud. Thuc. p. 49) as a gloss (see on viii. 25. 10). If τὸν μισθοφόρον ὄχλον includes a part of the Peloponnesians, ξενικόν is unin telligible. Cl., who retains τὸν ξενικόν, thinks that Thuc. wished possibly to define both features (mercenary and foreign) of a military relation then still rare.—17.

Λακεδαιμονίους καὶ Πελοποννησίους: the two names connected, because the shameful agreement affected Peloponnesians commanded by a Spartan.—

διαβαλεῖν ἐς τοὺς ἐκείνῃ: to bring into discredit with those in that quarter, as in iv. 22. 12. διαβάλλειν, in this sense, with the dat., viii. 88. 9; 109. 4.— 18.

χρῄζων: wishing, only here in Thuc., and indeed seldom in Attic prose. Cf. Xen. Cyrop. i. 6. 15; Arist. Plant. i. 1. 21. It occurs several times in Aristophanes and numberless times in Tragedy.—

Ἕλληνας ὡς καταπροδόντες kte(.: because they had betrayed Hellenes and considered their own advantage more important. See Steup, Quaest. Thuc. p. 29 sq. Usually Ἕλληνας is connected with ἐς τοὺς ἐκείνῃ. But, first, there is no reason why regard should have been had only to the Hellenes of that quarter, when the barbarian Amphilochians were participants in the war (cf. c. 112. 29; ii. 68. 16); secondly, καταπροδόντες requires an obj., and the thought of the ὡς clause is greatly strengthened by making Ἕλληνας this object. For thus it is esp. emphasized, that while Sparta proclaimed that the whole war was waged for the freedom of the Hellenes (see on c. 13. 35; 32. 5), now Hellenes (i.e. the Ambraciots and the Peloponnesian μισθοφόρος ὄχλος) are betrayed by Lacedaemonians and Peloponnesians. For the emphatic position of Ἕλληνας before the conj., cf. ii. 64. 17, and see on c. 88. 8. The objection of St., that the treachery had been committed, non in omnes Graecos, sed in illorum socios, would be admissible only if not Ἕλληνας, but τοὺς Ἕλληνας were to be connected with καταπροδόντες.—19. προυργιαίτερον ἐποιήσαντο: cf. Isoc. vi. 35; Isae. ix. 25; Polyb. i. 1. 6. The comp. προυργιαίτερον from the adv. προύργου (iv. 17. 8), as πλησιαίτερον from πλησίον.

ὥσπερ ὑπῆρχε: “as well as possible under the circumstances,” = ἐκ τῶν ὑπαρχόντων or παρόντων. Cf. Xen. Anab. vi. 4. 9 ἔθαψαν ἐκ τῶν ὑπαρχόντων ὡς ἐδύναντο κάλλιστα.— 21. τὴν α<*>ποχώρησιν . . . ἐπεβούλευον: those to whom it had been granted were making secret preparations for retreat. With τὴν ἀποχώρησιν ἐπεβούλευον, cf. vii. 51. 5 τὸν ἔκπλουν ἐπιβουλεῦσαι, vi. 54. 14 ἐπιβουλεύει κατάλυσιν τῇ τυραννίδι, viii. 60. 4 ἐπιβουλεύοντες ἀπόστασιν. See on c. 96. 11. οἶς ἐδέδοτο, i.e. ἐκεῖνοι οἶς, those named above, l. 12 ff.

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