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After the Mytileneans fail in the attack on Methymna, and the Methymneans, on the other hand, are repulsed with loss from Antissa, the Athenians send reinforcements under Paches to Lesbos and invest Mytilene with a wall. Beginning of the winter 428-427 B.C. Μυτιληναῖοι δέ: opp. to οἱ δὲ Λακεδαιμόνιοι, c. 16. 9, as well as to οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι, c. 16. 18, and resumes the narrative interrupted at c. 6 fin. — ὅν: see on c. 17. 1.—2. περὶ τὸν ἰσθμόν: cf. c. 15. 5 to 16. 14.— ἐπὶ Μήθυμναν: cf. c. 2. 2, 9.— ὡς προδιδομένην: pres. partic. because the betrayal was, as they thought, then being agitated or prepared for. Kühn. 382, 6 b.—3. οἱ ἐπίκουροι: prob. mercenaries, mention of whom is made c. 2. 8. The term, which meant originally allies, was chiefly applied, prob. cuphemistically, to hired soldiers in the service of despots or oligarchical factions. See on i. 115. 18.—4. οὐ προυχώρει: impers., as in i. 109. 7; ii. 56. 12; iv. 59. 16. See on i. 109. 7.—5. ἐπ̓ Ἀντίσσης καὶ Πύρρας καὶ Ἐρέσου: which, though already siding with the Mytileneans, were to be secured against overtures of the democratic party.—6. καταστησάμενοι: with pred. adj. (βεβαιότερα), as i. 118. 8.— 7. κρατύναντες: a poetic word; act., also i. 69. 2; mid., c. 82. 40; iv. 52. 13; 114. 10. In tragedy it = κρατεῖν.— τείχη: without article, see on c. 3. 16. ἐστράτευσαν δέ: emphatic repetition of the verb, l. 3 (ἐπαναφορά). See on i. 28. 8. A favourite usage of Hdt.—9. ἐκβοηθείας: a sortie, found only here; corresponding to ἐκβοηθεῖν, i. 105. 29; Hdt. ix. 26. 11, and freq. in late writers.—10. πληγέντες: μεγάλως νικηθέντες, Schol. Used only in aor. or pf. pass. and always in sense of a severe defeat. Cf. iv. 108. 25; v. 14. 5; viii. 38. 7; Hdt. v. 120. 7; viii. 130. 10; Soph. O. C. 605; Eur. Rhes. 867.— τῶν ἐπικούρων: i.e. those whom the Mytileneans had left there as a garrison, as indicated in καταστησάμενοι . . . βεβαιότερα above. —11. πολλοί, οἱ λοιποί: const. as in c. 13. 17. ταῦτα: explained by the two following partic. clauses, which are construed with πυνθανόμενοι, as if ταῦτα had not preceded. Kühn. 469, 3 c. Cf. Soph. Phil. 1355 τῶς ταῦτ̓ ἐξανασχήσεσθε, τοῖσιν Ἀτρέως ἐμὲ ξυνόντα παισίν, Ar. Nub. 380 τουτί μ̓ ἐλελήθειν, ὁ Ζεὺς οὐκ ὤν.—13. τῆς γῆς κρατοῦντας: cf. c. 6. 8.—14. εἴργειν: to shut in the Mytileneans. Cf. — περὶ τὸ φθινόπωρον ἤδη ἀρχόμενον: cf. c. 100. 6, and see on ii. 31. l. μετόπωρον, in vii. 79. 10; viii. 108. 9, seems to be synonymous with φθινόπωρον.—15. χιλίους ὁπλίτας: cf. Diod. xii. 85. The number of the fleet is not given here, because the object of the expedition is to strengthen the land force, not the fleet. αὐτερέται: pred. The unusual fact that hoplites here served at the oar, evidently for economieal reasons (cf. c. 19. § 1), is esp. emphasized. Cf. i. 10. 26; vi. 91. 15.—17. ἀφικνοῦνται καὶ περιτειχίζουσι . . . ἐγκατῳκοδόμη- ται: Cl. explains ‘to the historical presents corresponds the pf. ἐγκατῳκοδόμηται, which seems to be used with reference to the forts (φρούρια) first built at suitable points (ἐπὶ καρτερῶν), in which the troops found safety while resting, as well as at night: “they proceed to invest the city with a single wall, and already at strong points in the circuit of the wall forts have been built in.” Hence the changes proposed, ἐγκατῳκοδόμητο (Haase), ἐγκατοικοδομεῖται (Bl.), ἐγκατ ῳκοδομήθη (Bk.), ἐγκατῳκοδόμησαν (Kr.) are unnecessary.’ Arn. compares Caes. Bell. Civ. iii. 37 erant enim circum castra Pompeii permulti editi atque asperi colles; hos primum praesidiis tenuit, castellaque ibi communiit; inde ut loci cuiusque natura ferebat, ex castello in castellum producta munitione, circumvallare Pompeium instituit. But Steup, who contends that the φρούρια were constructed at the same time with the wall and built in after the manner of the πύργοι in the double wall around Plataea (c. 21. 8), insists that the pf. is out of place here, since a mere statement of an occurrence was to be made, and that the aor. or impf. is required (cf. c. 7. 11; 70. 28 74. 3).— ἐν κύκλῳ: also c. 74. 8; elsewhere without ἐν, i. 106. 6; ii. 78. 4; 84. 3, etc.—18. ἔστιν οἷ: so most editt. read; Bk. and Bl., ἔστιν ᾗ with five Mss.— ἐπὶ τῶν καρτερῶν: cf. c. 110. 7; ii. 100. 3. καὶ . . . εἴργετο: cf. the conclusion of the account of the siege of Potidaea, i. 64. § 3.— κατὰ κράτος: applied to any energetic use of force, as in i. 64. 14, and freq.—20. καὶ ἐκ γῆς καὶ ἐκ θαλάσσης εἴργετο: what had been already in part effected (c. 6. 7) is now completed. Cf. viii. 40. 6.
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