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The 220 Plataeans, who persist in their purpose, scale on a rainy night the encompassing wall.

παρεσκεύαστο: the impers. pass., rarer in Greek than in Latin. See on i. 46. 1. G. 1240, 2; H. 602; Kr. Spr. 61, 5, 6; Kühn. 378, N. 2.—

τηρήσαντες . . . ἀσέληνον: τηρήσαντες also i. 65. 4; iv. 27. 10; vi. 2. 21; as φυλάξαντες, ii. 3. 17; vii. 83. 15. Cf. Dion. H. Ant. iii. 65. 2 φυλάξαντες νύκτα χειμέριον ὕδασι καὶ ἀνέμῳ, Dio C. lxxxi. 12 ἐτήρησε νύκτα ἀσέληνον καὶ ὑετῷ λάβρῳ βρονταῖς τε χειμέριον. For other imitations see Bl.'s translation (note). The rain was mixed with snow, as shown by ἀνέμῳ ὑπονειφομένη, c. 23. 25.—2.

ἐξῇσαν: impf. of the act in progress, as i. 26. 23; 49. 2, the details of the execution being expressed by aors. διέβησαν (3), προσέμειξαν (4).—3.

οἵπερ καὶ τῆς πείρας αἴτιοι ἦσαν: see on c. 20. 7, 9.—4.

περιεῖχεν αὐτούς: i.e. the inner ditch next to the besieged.—

προσέμειξαν τῷ τείχει: they reached the foot of the wall. προσέμειξαν of approach also c. 31. 12; i. 46. 8; vi. 104. 19. On the form see St. Qu. Gr.^{2} p. 39; Meisterhans, p. 144.—6.

ἀνὰ τὸ σκοτεινὸν μέν: in the darkness. ἀνά of local extension also iv. 72. 11 (Kühn. 433, 1, 2); not found elsewhere in Thucydides. For position of μέν, see Kühn. 528, 1.—

οὐ προιδόντων, οὐ κατακουσάντων: without obj., in the general sense of see and hear. The gens. abs. after preceding accus. (τοὺς φύλακας), on account of the independent importance of the causes expressed. GMT. 850; H. 972 d; Kr. Spr. 47, 4, 2; Kühn. 494 b. Cf. c. 13. 30; i. 114. 2.—

αὐτῶν: sc. τῶν φυλάκων.—ψόφῳ τῷ: this order, by which stress is thrown on the attribute, is freq. in Thuc. See on i. 1. 6. The dat. depends on ἀντιπαταγοῦντος, which is found only here in Thuc.; elsewhere only in late writers, e.g. Arr. Anab. v. 12. 3; Dio C. xlviii. 48; Plut. Mor. 1000 b.

διέχοντες πολύ: cf. ii. 81. 14. The measure of πολύ here of course must not be supposed greater than necessity demanded.—9.

τὰ ὅπλα: placed for emphasis between ὅπως and μή. Cf. viii. 45. 15.—10.

εὐσταλεῖς τῇ ὁπλίσει: = ψιλοί, 14, 17. κούφην ὅπλισιν περιβεβλημένοι, Schol. Cf. Aesch. Pers. 797 εὐσταλῆ στόλον. The armour was of various sorts, acc. to § 3.—

τὸν ἀριστερὸν πόδα μόνον . . . πρὸς τὸν πηλόν: the emphasis seems to be on μόνον, i.e. only the left foot was shod, the right being bare to prevent slipping in the mud. Cf. Sall. Jug. 94, Ceterum illi, qui escensuri erant, praedocti ab duce, arma ornatumque mutaverant, capite atque pedibus nudis, uti prospectus nisusque per saxa facilius foret. Arnold quotes from Scott's Lay of Last Minstrel iv. 8, “Each better knee was bared to aid The warrior in the escalade.” But many editt. think the meaning is, that the left foot was shod for security against slipping, the right unshod διὰ κουφότητα, as the Schol. explains. See App.

κατὰ . . . προσέμισγον πρὸς τὰς ἐπάλξεις: what is summarily stated at l. 5 in the aor. is here repeated, with somewhat more exact designation of the point of attack, in the impf., which tense prevails as far as ἔμελλον, With προσέμισγον πρὸς τὰς ἐπάλξεις, cf. vii. 22. 8 πρὸς τὰς ἐντὸς προσμεῖξαι. But see App.—13.

εἰδότες ὅτι ἐρῆμοί εἰσι: sc. on account of the νὺξ χειμέριος, as explained c. 21. § 4. —

πρῶτον μὲν . . . (19)

ἔφερον: see App.—14.

προσέθεσαν, (16)

ἀνέβη: these two particular facts alone of the whole account are expressed by the aorist. Arn. says, ‘The transition from painting a seene to stating a fact is marked by the variation of tense from ἀνέβαινον to ἀνέβη; the first represents the party in the very act of mounting the wall, the second records the fact that their commander was the first man who did mount it.’ —

ἔπειτα, (17)

ἔπειτα: after πρῶτον μέν, cf. Xen. Cyrop. i. 3. 14.—

ξὺν ξιφιδίῳ καὶ θώρακι: for the collective sing., see Kr. Spr. 44, 1, 7. Cf. ii. 70. 14. For the use of ξύν, which is chiefly poetic, seldom occurring in Attie prose except in Xen., see G. 1217; Kühn. 431, 2.—16.

μετὰ δὲ αὐτὸν οἱ ἑπόμενοι: i.e. Ammeas and his eleven companions, who were to attack in two squads of six each the two nearest towers.—20.

εἶεν: for the form, see on c. 42. 22. St. Qu. Gr.^{2} p. 62.

ᾔσθοντο: without expressed obj. as i. 95. 21; 118. 9, etc.—

οἱ ἐκ τῶν πύργων φύλακες: for the attraction of the prep., see on c. 5. 1 and i. 8. 9. —23.

δοῦπον: Cl. has adopted this reading of one Ms. (A), instead of the vulg. ψόφον, with Bk., Goell., and St., on the ground that it is not only the more appropriate, but also the rarer word, and hence rather to be attributed to Thuc. than to the copyist. It is used chiefly in poetry, but occurs in Xen. Anab. ii. 2. 19. But the vulg. seems to be supported by the imitations which Bl. cites from Dio C. (xliii. 11 and xliv. 17), where ψόφον is read.

τὸ δὲ στρατόπεδον ἐπὶ τὸ τεῖχος ὥρμησεν: i.e. the garrison, which had gone into shelter from the rain, now hastened each to his own station on the wall. στρατόπεδον, troops, without reference to any fixed array, as in ii. 25. 9, and freq.—25.

τὸ δεινόν: the danger. Cf. 11; 84. 8; 120. 13.—

σκοτεινῆς νυκτὸς . . . ὄντος: the partic. belongs to both substs., σκοτεινῆς νυκτός being treated as a single word.—26.

τῶν Πλαταιῶν: the part. gen. in the very unusual position between the art. and partic., as in c. 36. 19; 65. 14; i. 126. 33; vi. 102. 1. See Merriam, Trans. Am. Philol. Assoc. 1882, p. 45. Kr. Spr. 47, 9, 11. —27.

προσέβαλλον: so Steup reads (for the vulg. προσέβαλον), with two Mss. (C and f), as being more natural in describing an event that was not momentary, and in accordance with the following impfs. Cf. esp. παρανῖσχον, 1.35.—28.

ἐκ τοὔμπαλιν : from the opposite side. ἔμπαλιν also in Hdt. i. 207. 13; ix. 56. 8. as in τοὐναντίον , vi. 68. 14; vii. 80. 6; Plato Gorg. 481 c.—29.

ὑπερέβαινον: with the corresponding οἱ ὑπερβαίνοντες (c. 23. 1), of what was at that time going on.—

πρὸς αὐτοὺς τὸν νοῦν ἔχοιεν: give attention to them. Cf. vii. 19. 32; viii. 8. 16.

ἐθορυβοῦντο: were in great exeitement. Cf. v. 65. 28.

κατὰ χώραν: at their post. Cf. i. 28. 18. —31.

ἐκ τῆς αὑτῶν φυλακῆς: from the post assigned to each. αὑτῶν, or <*>῾αυτῶν, is both by position and emphasis preferable to αὐτῶν of most of the Mss.; for as the οὐδείς clause is only the complement of κατὰ χώραν μένοντες, the pl. αὑτῶν refers back to the subj. of ἐθορυβοῦντο. G. 960; H. 673b. Cf. c. 91. 6; viii. 48. 28. St. reads αὐτῶν (intensive). Kr. Spr. 47, 9, 12.—

ἐν ἀπόρῳ ἦσαν εἰκάσαι τὸ γιγνόμενον: they were at a loss to conjecture what was going on. Cf. i. 25. 2 ἐν ἀπόρῳ εἴχοντο θέσθαι τὸ παρόν.

οἱ τριακόσιοι: for the art., see on c. 3. 18. The number is a favourite one for a corps of picked men, esp. among the Lacedaemonians. See Trieber, N. Jahrbb. ciii. p. 443 ff. Cf. ii. 25. 17; iv. 70. 14; 125. 19. —33.

ἐτέτακτο: impers., as in c. 61. 12, and with dat. and inf., as i. 19. 6; v. 31. 10 (Kr., ἐπετέτακτο; Cobet, προσετέτακτο).—

ἐχώρουν ἔξω τοῦ τείχους πρὸς τὴν βοήν: since the towers from which the ery of alarm came were, as all the rest, ἰσοπλατεῖς τῷ τείχει (c. 21. 9), one could not know whether the danger was from the eity or from without; but under the circumstances it was natural to think first of danger from without, i.e. from Athens. And so the 300, as well as the guards of the remaining towers, left the Plataeans, who were crossing, for the time unmolested. ἐχώρουν πρὸς τὴν βοήν, i.e. to the place whence the ery came, in the proper sense of βοηθεῖν. The φρυκτοὶ πολέμιοι were signals to indicate danger from the enemy. Cf. ii. 94. 1. From this place and c. 80. 7, Arn. infers (against the Schol. and Polyb. x. 40) considerable proficiency in the art of signalling. See Merriam, Telegraphing among the Ancients, Arch. Inst. Am., Classical Series iii. —35.

παρανῖσχον: lit. raised by the side of, i.e. so as to counteract the others. The compound not found elsewhere in Thuc.; intr. in Plut. Aemil. Paul. 32.—37.

ὅπως . . . καὶ μὴ βοηθοῖεν: the same change of mood as in vi. 96. 18, 19; vii. 17. 15, 17; viii. 87. 14, 17. GMT. 321; Kr. Spr. 54, 8, 2; Kühn. 553, 6.—38.

τῆς φρυκτωρίας: as Ar. Aves 1161; Aesch. Agam. 33, 490. Cf. φρυκτωροί, viii. 102. 2; φρυκτωρεῖν, c. 80. 7.—40.

οἱ ἐξιόντες: cf. c. 20. 6; 22. 2.—

πρὶν διαφύγοιεν: opt. by assimilation after μὴ βοηθοῖεν. GMT. 643; Kühn. 399, 6b.—41.

τοῦ ἀσφαλοῦς ἀντιλάβοιντο: reach safety. Cf. iv. 128. 12; vii. 60. 17; 77. 29. For the gen., see G. 1099; H. 738; Kühn. 416, 2.

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    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.13
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.20
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.21
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.23
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.3
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.31
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.36
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.42
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.5
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.61
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