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The next spring the Peloponnesians send a fleet to succour Mytilene, and make at the same time a fourth invasion of Attica.

οἱ Πελοποννήσιοι . . . αὐτοὶ καὶ οἱ ξύμμαχοι: see on c. 1. 4. 2. [

δύο καὶ τεσσαράκοντα]: Cl. explains that here, where the actual sending of the expedition is described, the exact number is given instead of the round number forty used elsewhere in the account (c. 16. 16; 25. 7; 29. 1; 69. 1). Arn. thinks the two additional ships may have been the Spartan contingent, which in such expeditions was always small. Cf. viii. 6. 31. Steup brackets the words. See App.—3.

ἄρχοντα: for ἔχοντα of the Mss. See App.—

ὃς ἦν αὐτοῖς ναύαρχος: cf. c. 16. 17. Here, as ii. 66. 6; 80. 12, the nauarchy extends from the summer of one year to the next.—5.

ὅπως . . . ἐπιβοηθήσουσιν: the reason why the invasion was made exactly then, not earlier nor later. Cf. § 4 and c. 25. 6 ὅτι ἐσβολή τε . . . παρέσονται.—ἀμφοτέρωθεν θορυβούμενοι: i.e. not only threatened by the fleet sailing to Lesbos, but actually attacked by a land force in Attica. —6.

ἧσσον: i.e. less than they could but for the invasion then made into Attica, against which part of the Athenian forces would be engaged. The Spartan government did not anticipate, of course, that in consequence of the slowness and cowardice of Alcidas the Athenians would hear of the fall of Mytilene soon after they heard of the sailing of Alcidas, and so would not need to send thither any more ships. Cf. c. 29. § 1.—

ταῖς ναυσὶν ἐς τὴν Μυτιλήνην καταπλεούσαις ἐπιβοηθήσουσιν: the sense of the whole final clause seems to be, “that the Athenians embarrassed both by sea and land might the less with their ships sail to Mytilene and bring aid” (lit. with their ships sailing to Mytilene bring aid). So St. explains (Goett. Gel. Anz. 1882, p. 97), taking the dat. as instrumental. The text is generally interpreted, “that the Athenians might the less advance against the ships sailing to Mytilene.” But ἐπιβοηθεῖν τινι means always, if the dat. is not instrumental, hasten to the aid of (cf. i. 73. 24; iv. 1. 11; 29. 23; 43. 15; Hdt. vii. 207. 9; viii. 1. 12; 14. 5); besides, to make καταπλεούσαις attrib. would require either that ναυσίν follow ἐς τὴν Μυτιλήνην, or that the article be repeated after ναυσίν. Steup brackets καταπλεούσαις. See App. καταπλεῖν does not differ essentially from the simple verb, as also in i. 51. 13; ii. 103. 3; iv. 26. 20; viii. 35. 4; 108. 1. ἐπιβοηθήσουσιν, with the best Mss., instead of ἐπιβοηθήσωσιν. GMT. 324; H. 881. c.

ἡγεῖτο τῆς ἐσβολῆς ταύτης: cf. ii. 10. 9.—

Κλεομένης ὑπὲρ Παυσανίου: οὗτος Κλεομένης καὶ Πλειστοάναξ παῖδές εἰσι Παυσανίου τοῦ ἐν Πλαταιᾶσιν ἀριστεύσαντος ἐπὶ τῶν Μήδων, Schol. See on i. 94. 1; 114. 11. Archidamus, who had led the previous invasions, was prob. still alive, but hindered by illness. His death must have occurred soon after, for his son Agis, as king, leads the expedition of the following year, c. 80. 3. See Kr. Hist.-phil. Stud. i. p. 151. Elsewhere, in narrating Peloponnesian invasions of Attica, Thuc. always adds the father's name to that of the leader (c. 1. 3; i. 114. 11; ii. 19. 6; 47. 6; iv. 2. 3; vii. 19. 3—cf. also c. 89. 3; ii. 71. 3). But everywhere else a Spartan king is the leader. The present passage differs, it is true, also from i. 107. 6, where in the account of the expedition into central Greece, which led to the battle of Tanagra, it is said, Νικομήδους τοῦ Κλεομβρότου ὑπὲρ Πλειστοάνακτος τοῦ Παυσανίου βασιλέως, νέου ὄντος ἔτι, ἡγουμένου. Still one is less inclined to accept, with G. Osberger (Festgruss f. Heerwagen, p. 89 f.), the loss of Παυσανίου before ὑπὲρ Παυσανίου, since the absence of Λακεδαιμονίων with βασιλέως is also unusual. In i. 107. 6, οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι occurs as subj. 8.

ὑπέρ: in place of. Kühn. 435, i. 2 a. —

υἱέος: this form of gen. also i. 13. 26; 137. 2; ii. 100. 14; υἱοῦ, v. 16. 24. See on i. 13. 26.—9.

νεωτέρου ἔτι: yet too young, sc. to rule. Cf. vi. 12. 10 νεώτερος ἔτι ὢν ἐς τὸ ἄρχειν.— πατρὸς δέ: see App. [

καί]: see App.—11.

ὅσα . . . παρελέλειπτο: cf. ii. 57. 8, where, in the account of the second invasion, τὴν γῆν πᾶσαν ἔτεμον must mean, ravaged all parts of the land, not every point. παραλείπειν, spare, as in ii. 13. 7. —13.

μετὰ τὴν δευτέραν: cf. ii. 57. § 2. —

ἐπιμένοντες . . . τι πεύσεσθαι: for the const. with inf., see on c. 2. 7; 12. 11.—14.

ὡς ἤδη πεπεραιωμένων: as was natural to assume, since the fleet was expected to make all haste (c. 29. 2), instead of proceeding with the utmost slowness, as it did (c. 27. 2; 29. 3). For const. of the partic., see on c. 4. 15.—15.

ἐπεξῆλθον: abs., they went forward, as i. 62. 24. Cf. Plato Gorg. 492 d. Bm. takes τὰ πολλὰ with ἐπεξῆλθον, comparing c. 67. 1 ταῦτα ἐπεξήλθομεν (used fig.), and ii. 94. 13 καταδραμόντες τῆς Σαλαμῖνος τὰ πολλά.—16. ἐπελελοίπει σῖτος: i.e. the corn brought with them. Cf. c. 1. 8; ii. 10. 4; 23. 11.—17.

ἀνεχώρησαν καὶ διελύθησαν κατὰ πόλεις: for the formula, see on c. 1. 9.

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    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.1
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    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.2
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.25
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.27
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.29
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