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We shall also, if we punish the whole population without merey, turn everywhere the democratic party against us and drive them over to the enemy.

ὅσον: in indir. question, as in i. 78. 3. Cf. i. 136. 11 (ὅς), and see on c. 62. 6. On such consts. of the rel. pron., see also Dufour, Rev. de Philol. N. S. xiv. p. 57 ff.—

τοῦτο: the acc. is cogn., as in c. 37. 5 τι ἂν ἁμάρτητε.

νῦν μὲν γὰρ kte(.: in answer to c. 39. § 6.—4.

ἐὰν βιασθῇ: sc. ξυναφίστασθαι.—ὑπάρχει . . . πολέμιος εὐθύς: i.e. as soon as war begins. Cf. iv. 78. 14 τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις αἰεί ποτε τὸ πλῆθος τῶν Θεσσαλῶν εὔνουν ὑπῆρχεν. The result is expressed in καὶ τῆς ἀντικαθισταμένης . . . ἐπέρχεσθε. τὸ πλῆθος for τὸν δῆμον to emphasize the numerical superiority.—5.

τῆς ἀντικαθισταμένης πόλεως: of the city opposed to you, as in i. 71. 1.—6.

ἐς πόλεμον ἐπέρχεσθε: unusual const., for the more usual ἐς πόλεμον καθίστασθε (see on ii. 75. 1), or πρὸς πόλεμον τρέπεσθε (v. 114. 3). But cf. ἐς τιμωρίαν ἐπέρχονται, iv. 25. 35; ἐπεξιέναι ἐς μάχην, iv. 68. 16. Hence there is no need to bracket ἐς πόλεμον, with v. H., or to write ἐς πόλεμον ἔρχεσθε (cf. ἰέναι ἐς τοὺς πολέμους, i. 78. 7; 118. 11), with Badham and Cobet, Mnem. N.S. viii. p. 137.

ἐπειδή τε kte(.: cf. c. 27. § 3; 28. Diodotus exaggerates somewhat the services of the demos of Mytilene; still the course of the demoeratic party after arms were received was the cause of the capitulation.—10.

καταστήσετε . . . μάλιστα: you will bring to pass what the aristocrats most wish. Cf. iv. 92. 31 πολλὴν ἄδειαν τῇ Βοιωτίᾳ μέχρι τοῦδε κατεστήσαμεν. In this sense καθιστάναι takes, as a rule, a pred. adjective. See on c. 46. 2. For the part. gen. in pred. position, cf. c. 37. 17; 67. 16; iv. 17. 14; 28. 25; vii. 61. 7. G. 965; H. 730 d.—12.

προδειξάντων ὑμῶν: because you will have taught them beforehand. Cf. προυδήλου, i. 130. 9. Or perhaps, as Steup explains, προδεικνύναι, proclaim, as προαγορεύειν, i. 26. 20; 29. 3; 43. 2; 140. 22, etc.— 14.

δεῖ δὲ καὶ . . . προσποιεῖσθαι: the orator, wishing to be as consistent as possible, assumes the view of his opponent to be true, you must, even if they did wrong, ignore it, lit. pretend that they did not. The fact is expressed in hypothetical form, as in c. 43. 19. μὴ προσποιεῖσθαι, sc. ἀδικῆσαι αὐτούς. Kr. Spr. 67, 1, 5. Schol. μή τοί γε δεικνύειν τὸ γνῶναι. Cf. Theophr. Char. 1 ἀκούσας τι, μὴ προσποιεῖσθαι, Diog. Laert. ix. 29 ἐὰν λοιδορούμενος μὴ προσποιῶμαι.

καὶ τοῦτο: explained by ἑκόντας . . . διαφθεῖραι. Steup explains as cogn. acc. with ἀδικηθῆναι, referring to what precedes. Cf. c. 65. l; i. 38. 10; 67. 10; v. 30. 14; viii. 99. 8. But its position is against this view. —

κάθεξιν: maintenance, found only here in Thuc. It means retentio in Arist. Pol. iv. 15. 6 and Plut. de Sol. Animal. 968 c. See Lobeck, ad Phryn. p. 351.—17.

δικαίως: as in c. 44. 14.—

οὓς μὴ δεῖ: i.e. οὓς οὐ ξυμφέρει τῇ πόλει.—18. τὸ Κλέωνος τὸ αὐτὸ δίκαιον καὶ ξύμφορον: “Cleon's claim of a union of right and justice in the punishment.” Cf. c. 40. 17 ff. τὸ αὐτὸ . . . ξύμφορον is not appos., but the whole expression is closely connected. τὸ αὐτό in its pred. sense. Cf. οἱ αὐτοί, as in ii. 40. 12. —19.

εὑρίσκεται: used of the results of careful investigation, as in historical inquiry. Cf. i. 21. 7; iv. 62. 2; vi. 2. 8, and see on i. 1. 11.—

ἐν αὐτῷ: sc. ἐν τῷ διαφθεῖραι αὐτούς. Not with Dobree ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ, or Kr. ἐν ταὐτῷ; for right and advantage might often be combined. Since ἐν αὐτῷ makes τῆς τιμωρίας rather pleonastic, and ἅμα is tautological after τὸ αὐτὸ δίκαιον καὶ ξύμφορον, Steup suggests that possibly Thuc. used οὐχ εὑρίσκεται abs. (is not found), and that ἐν αὐτῷ . . . γίγνεσθαι was a marginal remark that erept into the text.

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  • Commentary references from this page (9):
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.27
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.37
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.39
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.40
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.43
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.44
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.46
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.62
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.65
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