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πᾶσα ἰδέα: see on c. 81. 22. —

κακοτροπίας: of wickedness, i.e. baseness of the whole mode of thought and conduct (i.e. τρόποι, ii. 36. 16; 39. 21; 41. 7). The word occurs elsewhere only in Dio C., Jos., and other late writers.—2.

τῷ Ἑλληνικῷ: cf. c. 82. 3.—

καὶ τὸ εὐηθὲς . . . ἠφανίσθη: and simplicity, of which nobility partakes most largely, was laughed at and disappeared. τὸ εὐηθές as εὐήθεια, c. 45. 30. This passage is cited by grammarians (Photius, Thomas Mag., Moeris) as furnishing a characteristic example of the original meaning of the word.—

τὸ γενναῖον: cf. c. 82. 43 γενναιότητι.—3. πλεῖστον μετέχει: cf. i. 84. 12 αἰδὼς σωφροσύνης πλε<*>τον μετέχει.—τὸ δὲ ἀντιτετάχθαι . . . διήνεγκεν: but to be in mind distrustfully arrayed against each other prevailed far and wide. Cf. c. 82. 41 ff.—

ἀντιτετάχθαι: as in war, v. 55. 7.— 4.

ἐπὶ πολύ: of space, as in i. 62. 24; ii. 75. 8; v. 73. 25; vi. 37. 18; 70. 12; viii. 10. 9.—

διήνεγκε: Schol. κρεῖττον ἐγένετο.

οὐ γὰρ ἦν . . . φοβερός: “for there was no word binding enough, no oath terrible enough, to bring about an adjustment.” Lit. for there was, that could bring about an adjustment, neither binding word nor fearful oath. διαλύσων (qui dirimeret) is construed by most editt. as pred. (see Kr. Spr. 50, 4, 4). But Steup objects that the implication would then be, that there was not indeed λόγος ἐχνρός or ὅρλος φοβερός, but something else, διαλύσων. He makes therefore διαλίσων attrib., and the complete subj. διαλύσων . . . φοβερός. Cf. ii. 62. 13 οὐκ ἔστιν ὅστις οὔτε βασιλεὺς κωλύσει οὔτε ἄλλο οὐδὲν ἔθνος.— 6.

κρείσσους δὲ ὄντες . . . μᾶλλον προεσκόπουν kte(.: all men when stronger (than their enemies), by consideration of the hopelessness of security (in word and oath), rather made provision not to suffer, than were able to trust others. This seems to be the meaning of this much discussed passage. κρείσσους ὄντες = εἰ προύχοιεν, c. 82. 42. ἐς, “with reference to.” St.'s explanation (Rh. Mus. xv. p. 475), adopted by Cl., is: “all men found more strength in calculations providing against the unexpected than in pledges of security (such as promises and oaths), and looked rather to suffering no ill, than were able to trust others.” With this view, τοῦ βεβαίου, depending on κρείσσους, = τῷ βεβαίῳ. Cf. vi. 1. 1 μείζονι παρασκευῇ τῆς μετὰ Λάχητος, and Xen. Anab. ii. 5. 13. Dobree supplies τοῦ λόγου καὶ τοῦ ὅρκου with κρείσσους (cf. c. 84. 12 κρείσσων τοῦ δικαίου), which Kr. rightly thinks harsh. The explanation of the Schol. is, ῥέποντες δὲ οἱ ἄνθρωποι τοῖς λογισμοῖς πρὸς τὸ μὴ ἐλπίζειν τινὰ πίστιν καὶ βεβαιότητα (“the thoughts of all men tended to despair of security”), which Bl., Jow., and Hude prefer. Dio C.'s imitation of the passage (frg. 49) is viz. κρείττους ἐς τὸ ἀφανὲς τοῦ προδήλου (i.e. ἐς τὸ πρόδηλον) τῷ λογισμῷ γιγνόμενοι.

οἱ φαυλότεροι γνώμην: those inferior in intellect. Cf. c. 37. 17.—

ὡς τὰ πλείω: = ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πλεῖον, c. 37. 18.—9.

τὸ ἐνδεές: Schol. τὴν ἔλλειψιν τῆς γνώμης.—10. μὴ . . . φθάσωσι προεπιβουλευόμενοι: epexegetical explanation of τό τε αὑτῶν ἐνδεὲς κτἑ.— 11. ἐκ τοῦ πολυτρόπου αὐτῶν: in consequence of their versatility. ἐκ as in i. 2. 17; 75. 7. τὸ πολύτροπον as πολυτροπίη, Hdt. ii. 121. ε 12. Cf. πολύτροπος, Hom. α 1. As noun not found elsewhere. αὐτῶν, i.e. τῶν ἐναντίων. —φθάσωσι προεπιβουλευόμενοι: the pres. partic. with φθάνειν as in vi. 99. 12, elsewhere in Thuc. always the aor. partic. (c. 23. 21; 89. 11; 112. 5; ii. 91. 5; iv. 4. 11; 104. 20; v. 3. 5; 10. 13; vi. 61. 11; 97. 11; 101. 34; vii. 6. 16; 23. 3; 25. 45; 42. 19; viii. 12. 3; 17. 7; 95. 20; 100. 3), except possibly viii. 92. 4, where Vat. has the pf. See Gildersleeve, Amer. J. of Ph. xii. p. 76.

οἱ δέ: their opponents, already characterized as οἱ ξυνετώτεροι.—13. καταφρονοῦντες: in causal relation to ἄφρακτοι, arrogantly presuming. Schol. διὰ καταφρόνησιν πεποιθότες. On καταφρονοῦντες depend both κἂν προαισθέσθαι and ἔργῳ οὐδὲν δεῖν λαμβάνειν. Kr. Spr. 65, 11, 7; Kühn. 473, 1. Cf. Hdt. i. 66. 6 καταφρονήσαντες Ἀρκάδων κρέσσονες εἶναι, Xen. Hell. iv. 5. 12 κατεφρόνουν διὰ τὰς ἔμπροσθεν τύχας μηδένα ἂν ἐπιχειρῆσαι σφίσιν.—προαισθέσθαι: Cl. adopted from Vat. and Aug. προαίσθεσθαι (as pres.). But since the only mark of distinction from the aor. is the accent, as to which the better Mss. agree hardly anywhere, it is best to consider this aor. here, as well as in ii. 93. 17; v. 26. 29; vi. 40. 9; vii. 75. 8. See Steup, App. on ii. 93. 17; St. Qu. Gr.^{2} p. 66.—14.

ἄφρακτοι: see on c. 82. 47.—

μᾶλλον: i.e. in greater num bers. Cf. ii. 7. 15. Junghahn (N. Jahrbb. exix. p. 367 f.) unnecessarily objects to the statement in § 3, 4 that in the στάσεις inferior intellects generally got the better of the cleverer sort. Steup infers from the striking transitions and repetitions of c. 82 and 83 (cf. e.g. c. 83. § 1 f. with c. 82. § 7), that these two chapters are composed of reflexions written at several different times.

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