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Demosthenes with thirty ships first attacks Leucas; but is persuaded by the Messenians to turn against Aetolia. (On this and the following chapters, cf. Diod. xii. 60.)

καὶ περὶ τὸν αὐτὸν χρόνον kte(.: this reference to c. 91. § 3 is the more necessary because the episode of the two preceding chaps. (see on c. 92. 1) has reached a point of time considerably in advance.—2.

κατείχοντο: as in ii. 86. 2, and referring to the vain attempt of c. 91. § 2, 3.—

οἱ ἀπὸ τῶν τριάκοντα νεῶν: see on c. 90. 12. —3.

τῶν τριάκοντα νεῶν: cf. c. 91. 1. —

περὶ Πελοπόννησον ὄντες: placed after the noun, without article. Cf. i. 51. 11; ii. 31. 4; 100. 8. G. 968.— 4.

ἐν Ἐλλομενῷ: so, not Ἐλλομένῳ with the Mss., acc. to the analogy of Ὀρχομενός. See St. Qu. Gr.^{2} p. 33 f. Acc. to Dodwell, Classical Tour, ii. p. 49, this place still retains its ancient name (Llomeno, identical with Ἐλλόμενος), and is situated on the east coast of Leucadia, a little inland. But as the name occurs nowhere else in the ancient writers. Forchhammer (Hellenica, p. 102) conjectures ἐν Κλυμένῳ, the real name being preserved in Klimeno, situated on a bay on the east coast of S. Maura. So also Leake; and Kiepert has adopted this form. But see Bursian i. p. 117. —

τῆς Λευκαδίας: Thuc. uses the form Λευκαδία of the territory of the Leucadians, which, acc. to what follows, included, besides the peninsula (see on c. 81. 3), also a part of the neighbouring mainland. Cf. iv. 42. 17; viii. 13. 3.—

φρουρούς τινας: cf. c. 7. 16; iv. 42. 17.—

λοχήσαντες διέφθειραν: as in i. 65. 10.—5.

ἔπειτα ὕστερον: as in ii. 9. 7; v. 61. 15; vi. 66. 14; 88. 54; vii. 82. 7.—

ἐπὶ Λευκάδα: against the city of Leucas, which was situated on the peninsula near the isthmus (cf. l. 10).—6.

Ἀκαρνᾶσί τε πᾶσιν: as to the omission of the art., see on c. 66. 3; ii. 9. § 2.—

πλὴν Οἰνιαδῶν: cf. ii. 102. 10.

ἔξω: sc. τοῦ ἰσθμοῦ. See on c. 81. 3.—10.

τὸ ἱερὸν τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος: this sanctuary was on the promontory of Leucatas, the southernmost point of the peninsula.—11.

πλήθει βιαζόμενοι: forced by superior numbers, the cause of ἡσύχαζον.—12. Δημοσθένην: see on c. 91. 2.—

ἀποτειχίζειν αὐτούς: to wall them off, i.e. τοὺς Λευκαδίους. That a complete circumvallation is meant (cf. i. 65. 2; vii. 1. 4; viii. 26. 20), is clear from c. 95. 12 διὰ τῆς Λευκάδος τὴν οὐ περιτείχισιν.

ἀναπείθεται: stronger term than the simple verb. Cf. c. 70. 23, and see on i. 84. 10.—15.

ὑπὸ Μεσσηνίων: sc. τῶν ἐν Ναυπάκτῳ. Cf. c. 107. 5; ii. 25. 22; iv. 9. 8; v. 35. 31.—

ὡς καλὸν αὐτῷ: sc. ἐστίν. Cf. Plato Rep. p. 327 c ἢν πείσωμεν ὑμᾶς ὡς χρὴ ἡμᾶς ἀφεῖναι. πείθειν with inf. means persuade to do something; with ὡς, convince, induce to believe, that. Kr. Spr. 65, 1, 4.—16.

ξυνειλεγμένης: note the force of the perf. partic., already collected, and not just with a view to the ἐπιθέσθαι. GMT. 142.—17.

Ναυπάκτῳ τε . . . οὖσι, καὶ . . . προσποιήσειν: the two motives (co-ord. by τε, καί) for the attack on the Aetolians stand in different grammatical relations to the main clause. For similar irregularities of const., cf. i. 129. 5; ii. 5. 21; iv. 3. 19, and see on i. 16. 2. προσποιήσειν and the following infs. depend on ἀναπείθεται, or some verb like ἔλεγον to be supplied from it. Kr. Spr. 65, 11, 7; Kühn. 593, N. 1.— 18.

τὸ ἄλλο ἠπειρωτικὸν τὸ ταύτῃ: i.e. all the Lacedaemonian allies on this coast, as the Ambraciots, Oeniadae, Leucadians, etc.

κατὰ κώμας: cf. i. 5. 7; 10. 12. —21.

διὰ πολλοῦ: far apart. Cf. διὰ τοσούτου, ii. 29. 17; δἰ ὀλίγου, ii. 89. 41; δἰ ἐλάσσονος, vi. 75. 3; vii. 4. 19. οὔσας is omitted, as ὤν in ii. 29. 19 βασιλεὺς πρῶτος ἐν κράτει.—σκευῇ: as in i. 8. 6, the equipment, dress, etc., of individuals. See on i. 2. 12.— 22.

οὐ χαλεπὸν ἀπέφαινον: χαλεπόν pred. without ὄν, as is often the case with adjs. after ὁρᾶν. Cf. ii. 45. 2; iv. 24. 8; 25. 14; viii. 16. 8.—

χαλεπὸν καταστραφῆναι: the less usual pass. inf. after an adj., as ἀπρεπῆ λεχθῆναι, ii. 36. 19; λόγον προσήκοντα ῥηθῆναι, Plato Legg. 751 b; κάλλιστος ὀφθῆναι, Plut. Dem. 16. See on c. 40. 8.

Ἀποδωτοῖς: the accent acc. to Steph. Byz. s.v. See St. Qu. Gr.^{2} p. 34. The Aetolian tribes here named dwelt in the so-called Αἰτωλία ἐπίκτητος, above Naupactus.—25.

ὅπερ: assimilated to the pred. H. 631; Kr. Spr. 61, 7, 8.—

ἀγνωστότατοι γλῶσσαν: because they had remained semi-barbarians (οὐκ ἔλοντες τὴν διάλεκτον εὔκολον γνωσθῆναι, Schol.). Cf. Poly b. xviii. 5 Αἰτωλῶν οὐκ εἰσὶν Ἕλληνες οἱ πλεῖστοι.—26. ὠμοφάγοι: Niebuhr (Vortr. etc. p. 138) refers this to the custom of eating flesh smoked or dried. Regarding the Aetolians, cf. also i. 5. § 3.—27.

ῥᾳδίως . . . προσχωρήσειν: as viii. 25. 28. The inf. depends on ἔλεγον to be supplied from ἐκέλευον. See on προσποιήσειν above.

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