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αὐτοῖς the Peloponnesians.

πρός τε τὸν Ἀστύοχον καὶ τὸν Τ. Cf. c. 78, § 1, ὑπό τε Ἀστυόχου καὶ Τισσαφέρνους.

Μίνδαρος slain next year (B.C. 410) at Cyzicus in a battle with the Athenians, Xen. Hell. i. 1, 18.

ἐπῆλθε so ἐπελθεῖν of taking command, c. 20, § 1.

δίγλωσσον like the Carian Mus sent by Mardonius in Hdt. viii. 133-135, and the interpreter Pigres in Xen. Anab. i. 2, 17. The epithet implies that both languages were spoken naturally and equally well. Cf. iv. 109, οἰκοῦνται ξυμμίκτοις ἔθνεσι βαρβάρων διγλώσσων.

τοὺς Μιγ. πορευομένους i.e. an embassy from them. Jowett compares i. 31, where a whole people is similarly identified with its representatives. πορευομένους = ‘were on their way.’

μάλιστα with ἐπὶ καταβοῇ κ.τ.λ., ‘chiefly to decry himself.’

Ἑρμοκράτη who had all along resisted Tissaphernes. Cf. c. 45, § 3.

ἔχθρα δὲ πρὸς αὐτὸν (sc. τὸν Ἑρμοκράτη) ἦν αὐτῷ (sc. τῷ Τισσαφέρνει), since Tissaphernes is the subject of the passage.

τὰ τελευταῖα anticipating the events of the next year.

φυγόντος ἐκ Συρακουσῶν a good instance of this sense of φεύγειν, ‘having been declared an exile from Syracuse.’ Cf. Xen. Hell, i. 1, 27, ἠγγέλθη (410 B. C.) τοῖς τῶν Συρακοσίων στρατηγοῖς οἴκοθεν ὅτι φεύγοιεν ὑπὸ τοῦ δήμου. The reason was a political victory of the opposite faction. Hermocrates afterwards established himself in Sicily and carried on a war against Syracuse.

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