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ἐπεσαγωγὰς τῶν πολεμίων ‘ways of letting in the enemy.’


οὖν resumptive. The words ἦν δέ τι καὶ τοιοῦτον . . . ἐξεργασάμενοι were a parenthetical comment. τὰ λεγόμενα, sc. by Theramenes above.

ἐκ τῆς πρεσβείας sc. of c. 90, § 2.

πληγεὶς . . . πατάξας the proper aorists act. and pass. of τύπτω = ferire. Rutherford, New Phryn. clii.; Cobet, Var. Lect. 335 sqq.

περιπόλων ‘militia,’ serving only in Attica on patrol and garrison duty. In vi. 45 περιπόλια are explained by the scholiast as τὰ ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ φρούρια. Cf. iv. 67; Aeschin. De F. Leg. 167, ἐκ παίδων ἀπαλλαγεὶς περίπολος τῆς χώρας ταύτης ἐγενόμην δύ᾽ ἔτη (i.e. from eighteen to twenty years of age). Plutarch (Alc. 25) calls the assassin Hermon, obviously from a confusion with Ἕρμων τις τῶν περιπόλων, inf. § 5. Lycurgus (contr. Leocr. 164 ([112]) says Phrynichus was killed by night παρὰ τὴν κρήνην τὴν ἐν τοῖς οἰσύοις by ‘Apollodorus and Thrasybulus.’ According to Lysias 137 (71) Thrasybulus of Calydon and Apollodorus of Megara killed him as he was taking a walk. There is no need to attempt a harmony of these stories. The account of Thucydides should be the more trustworthy. ‘It may well be,’ says Arnold, ‘that some zealous friends of the democracy laid claim to a merit with which really they had no concern.’

ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ πληθούσῃ The statement of place ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ is combined with the statement of time ἀγορᾶς πληθούσης (Xen. Mem. i. 1, 10), or περὶ ἀγορὰν πλήθουσαν (Anab. ii. 1, 7). Hence the article. ‘in the agora at the time when it is full.’ The time is the latter part of the forenoon, the day being divided into πρωί:, περὶ ἀγορὰν πλήθουσαν, μεσημβρία, δείλη (Kuhner on Xen. Anab. i. 8, 1). Plato, Gorg. 469 D, has εἰ ἐγὼ ἐν ἀγορᾷ πληθούσῃ λαβὼν ἐγχειρίδιον κ.τ.λ.

ἀπελθὼν of which P-S seems to miss the point, is necessary to the sense. οὐ πολὺ ἀπὸ τοῦ βουλευτηρίου would be a mere statement of place, ‘not far from the senate-house’; the added ἀπελθὼν signifies that Phrynichus had just left that house, and had not got far from it when the blow was struck. He may have been just reporting the result of his embassy.

οὐδενὸς γεγενημένου ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ νεωτέρου ‘no signal action having been taken in consequence.’ αὐτοῦ is neuter and refers to the event just named. Cf. ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ, c. 99.

καὶ Θηραμένης κ.τ.λ. ‘Theramenes on his part also . . .’ Action having begun, Th. is moved to something practical.

ᾖσαν ἐπὶ τὰ πράγματα Cf. § 4, καὶ ἔργῳ ἤδη ἥπτοντο τῶν πραγμάτων.


ὁρμισάμενοι . . . κατεδεδραμήκεσαν i.e. they had established themselves at Epidaurus, ravaged Aegina from that station, and returned to Epidaurus (hence πάλιν ὁρμεῖν inf.).

Αἴγιναν For its present relations see note on Αἰγινητῶν, c. 69, § 3.

κατακολπίσαι ‘came up the gulf (the Saronic).’ Their natural course to Euboea was E.N.E. across by Sunium.


προσγενομένων ‘having resulted (upon the matter).’ Cf. Soph. O. C. 1198, γνώσει κακοῦ θυμοῦ τελευτὴν ὡς κακὴ προσγἰγνεται. The genitive is absolute, not dependent on τέλος.

ἥπτοντο Theramenes and his party.

οἱ γὰρ . . . γὰρ introduces the narrative (name).

οἰκοδομοῦντες For position of the participle see c. 35, § 2; c. 36, § 1, etc.

ταξιαρχῶν A taxiarch is properly the commander of a τάξις, the infantry supplied by a tribe. Hence the following φυλήν. Cf. Aeschin. De F. Leg. 169, Τεμενίδου τοῦ τῆς Πανδιονίδος ταξιάρχου. On iv. 4 Arnold contends that the term is used more widely of regimental officers. This looser use is borne out by the mention here of the fact that Aristocrates was in charge ‘of his own tribe,’ a remark which intimates that ταξιάρχος is here used in its strict sense. The reading φυλακὴν would not be impossible in the meaning ‘having his own watch (of the day),’ i e. being in command for a part of the day. But the context is against this.

Ἀλεξικλέα afterwards sentenced to death for his share in the oligarchical treason (Lycurg. Leocr. 134).

τοὺς ἑταίρους the aristocratic clubs. Cf. τοῦ ἑταιρικοῦ, c. 48, § 3; τὰς ξυνωμοσίας, c. 54, § 4.


τὸ στῖφος. τὸ ρλῆθος is the body contemplated numerically, τὸ στῖφος the same body contemplated as an array for action. See crit. note.


ξυγκαθήμενοι. Cf. * ξυγκαθῖσαν, c. 67, § 2.

βουλομένοις ταῦτ᾽ ἦν. ταῦτα can scarcely bear directly the far-off implication of the scholiast δηλαδὴ ὀλιγαρχεῖσθαι. Rather it = ‘this side of the matter,’ i.e. ‘the present conduct of the 400.’

ἐς τὰ ὅπλα ἰέναι lit. ‘to go to the arms’ (where they were stacked). Cf. c. 69, § 1, ἐπ᾽ αὐτοῖς τοῖς ὅπλοις, and inf. § 8, ἐπὶ τὰ ὅπλα φερομένους. τὰ ὅπλα becomes = the arsenal or magazine, just as τὰ ὄψα, οἱ ἰχθῦς, etc., = the fishmarket, etc.

ξυναφαιρησόμενος sc. τὸν Ἀλεξικλέα

ἕνα τῶν στρατηγῶν, ὃς ἦν κ.τ.λ. ὅστις of most MSS. would give a reason for the special selection. Of a definite person ὅστις is common in Herodotus, but the proper distinction must be maintained in Attic prose. As for vi. 3, βωμὸν ὅστις νῦν ἔξω τῆς πόλεώς ἐστιν, see commentators in loc. As in later times ὅστις and ὃς were used indiscriminately, it may be that ὅστις is due to nothing better than a copyist's error. Nevertheless as παραλαμβάνειν στρατηλγὸν ὅστις ὁμογνώμων ἔσται is Greek, so Thucydides may possibly have written παραλαβὼν στρατηγὸν ὅστις ὁμογνώμων ἦν, the statement of purpose in the choice being expressed in an unusual way.

Ἀρίσταρχος see c. 90, § 1.

τῶν ἱππέων νεανίσκοι see c. 69, § 4. The ἱππῆς belong to the second highest class in the state and are therefore of aristocratical leanings.


Θουκυδίδου . . . πόλεως i.e ‘the proxenus of Athens at Pharsalus,’ not of Pharsalus at Athens, since the proxenus of one state in another must be a citizen of the latter. τῆς πόλεως, moreover, naturally refers to Athens.

ἐφεδρευόντων ἔτι. ἐγγὺς of most MSS is easier, but not on that account the more probable. In iv. 71 ἐγγὺς ἐφεδρευόντων occurs. ἔιτ = insuper: ‘with the enemy still to be reckoned with’ by the victor of the two parties.

σφῶν αὐτῶν = ἀλλήλων, but with stronger reflexiveness for antithesis to πολεμίων. Cf. c. 86, § 7, πρὸς σφᾶς αὐτοὺς . . . ξυμβῆναι.


ὅσον καὶ ἀπὸ βοῆς ἕνεκα ‘so far as shouting went.’ A conflation of ὅσον ἀπὸ βοῆς and βοῆς ἕνεκα, evidently well established: cf. Xen. Hell. ii. 4, 31, προσέβαλλεν ὅσον ἀπὸ βοῆς ἕνεκεν. Cf. similar pleonasms in Soph. Phil. 554, τοῖσιν Ἀργείοισιν ἀμφὶ σοῦ 'νεκα | βουλεύματ᾽ ἐστί, and Plat. Legg. 701 D, τίνος δὴ χάριν ἕνεκα. Haacke compares the German usage ‘von Rechts wegen.’

καὶ is an untranslatable part of the phrase, emphasising its qualificatory nature.

καὶ οἱ ἐναντίοι sc. τῷ Θηραμένει.

τῷ ἀληθεῖ See crit. note. The common reading τῷ πλήθει leaves ἐχαλέπαινον weak, and may be due to the notion that ἐναντίοι would naturally be followed by a dative. P-S, reading τῷ ἀληθεῖ, take it strangely as the case after ἐχαλέπαινον, ‘rei veritatem aegre ferebant.’ This makes a far-fetched sense, and τῷ ἀληθεῖ should naturally suggest an antithesis to ὅσον ἀπὸ βοῆς ἕνεκα. τῷ ἀληθεῖ = re vera does not apparently occur elsewhere, but is natural and quite analogous to τῷ ὄντι. The accus. τὸ ἀληθὲς occurs vi. 33, πρόφασιν μὲν . . . τὸ δὲ ἀληθές. Cf. Isoc. iii. 33, τῷ μέν λόγῳ . . . τῇ δὲ ἀληθείᾳ. If Thucydides is fond of such usages as τὸ ἀσφαλὲς = ἀσφάλεια, he may well use τῷ ἀληθεῖ = ἀληθείᾳ.


. ὁμόσε ἐχώρουν, a metaphor from conflict at close quarters. Cf. ii. 62, ἰέναι τοῖς ἐχθροῖς ὁμόσε.

καὶ εἰ . . . εἶναι sc. δοκεῖ.


. ἐπεκρύπτοντο . . . τῷ ὀνόματι μὴ . . . ὀνομάζειν, i.e. ὥστε μὴ ὀνομάζειν. For the construction cf. ii. 53, πρότερον ἀπεκρύπτετο μὴ καθ᾽ ἡδονὴν ποεῖν. Render literally, ‘for they nevertheless as yet hid (themselves i.e.) their purpose under the name of the 5000, so as not (i.e. not daring) to use flatly the terms “whoever wishes the people to rule,”’ ὀνομάζειν rather than λέγειν because the point lies in the express name δῆμον as opposed to τοὺς πεντακισχιλίους.

ὦσι ‘exist,’ sc. οἱ πεντακισχίλιοι.

καὶ πρός τινα εἰπών τις κ.τ.λ. ‘and for fear that, if a man were to say anything to another, he might in ignorance make a mistake,’ i e. the man to whom he was suggesting a democratical revolution might turn out to be himself one of the 5000.

ἄντικρυςἂν δῆμον ἡγούμενοι If the reading is sound there is a very peculiar confusion of ἄντικρυς δῆμον ἡγούμενοι and ἄντικρυς ἂν εἶναι δῆμον ἡγούμενοι. ἂν may possibly be an error for δὴ (ΑΝ and ΔΗ Cobet, Nov. Lect. p. 539), or less easily for αὖ, ‘democracy once again.’ For ἄντικρυς with noun cf. οὐδἐν ἄντικρυς δουλεία (i. 122). To simply omit ἂν with Kruger, P-S, etc., is scarcely criticism, and yet ἂν cannot be allowed, in default of something parallel, to stand without εἶναι or some similar verb.

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hide References (39 total)
  • Commentary references from this page (39):
    • Aeschines, On the Embassy, 167
    • Aeschines, On the Embassy, 169
    • Isocrates, Nicocles or the Cyprians, 33
    • Lycurgus, Against Leocrates, 112
    • Lycurgus, Against Leocrates, 134
    • Lysias, Against Agoratus, 70
    • Plato, Laws, 701d
    • Plato, Gorgias, 469d
    • Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus, 1198
    • Sophocles, Philoctetes, 554
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.122
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.53
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.62
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.4
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.67
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.71
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.3
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.33
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.45
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.35.2
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.36.1
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.48.3
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.54.4
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.67.2
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.69.1
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.69.3
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.69.4
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.86.7
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.90.1
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.90.2
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.92.4
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.92.5
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.92.8
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.99.1
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.8.1
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.1.7
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 2.4.31
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.1.10
    • Plutarch, Alcibiades, 25.10
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