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ξύγχυσιν—i. 146, σπονδῶν ξύγχυσις τὰ γιγνόμενα ἦν: cf. ch. 39, 18, ξυγχἐαι τὰς σπονδάς. ἐπειδὴ γάρ—γάρ introduces the account which has been already promised; so ii. 2, 1, in a passage like this: compare its use after such prefaces as τεκμήριον δέ, δῆλον δέ etc. καὶ ὔστερον — quasi-parenthetical, ‘followed by the alliance’, for the dissentient allies were dismissed from Sparta before the alliance was formally arranged, ch. 22, 8. Classen follows Cobet in altering αἱ ξυμμαχίαι into the singular, as there was only one alliance, that between Athens and Sparta, and a copyist's error might easily arise from the neighbouring plurals. In the beginning of ch. 48, however, ξυμμαχίαι occurs again. It is true more than two states are there concerned, but the singular had been used in reference to the same states at the end of ch. 46. The plural comes again in ch. 79, 6. Possibly the singular denotes an alliance in a general sense, while the plural refers to its several conditions, as ἔγκλημα in the orators is the plaintiff's ‘declaration’, the several items of which are ἐγκλήματα. καὶ αἱ—‘then also’; co-ordinate note of time; i. 50, 5, ἤδη δὲ ὀψὲ καὶ οί Κορίνθιοι: Soph Phil. 354, ἦν δ̓ ἦμαρ δεύτερον κἀγὼ κατηγόμην: Mk. XV. 25, ἦν ὥρα τρίτη καὶ ἐσταύρωσαν αὐτόν. It has been suggested to remove the καί before οἱ μέν in the next sentence, making the construction with ἐπειδή continue to Λακεο̂αίμονος. ἐς αὐτά—i.e. to discuss these airangements: αὐτό and αὐτά are perpetually used by Thucydides in this general sense: so i. 1, 2, τὰ πρὸ αὐτῶν. ἀνεχώρουν—‘inceptive’ imperfect, because though they all left Sparta they did not all return home at once. πρῶτον—with ἐς Ἄργος τραπόμενοι: cf. ch. 2, 6. ὁρᾶν ὅπως—with indic. future: iii. 46, 4, ὁρᾶν ὅπως ἕξομεν: so ví. 33, 3, ὁρᾶτε ὅτῳ τρόπῳ ἀμυνεῖσθε: iv. 128, fin. ἔπρασσεν ὅτῳ τρόπῳ ξυμβήσεται: i. 65, 2, ἔπρασσεν ὅπῃ ὠφελία τις γενήσεται. See Goodwin, § 339. τὴν βουλομένην—see note on iv. 26, 5, τὸν βουλόμενον. ὁ βουλόμενος is ‘he who chooses’: cf. Ar. Plut. 906 sq. where the συκοφάντης is asked his profession, and replies, ‘I choose’: Δίκ. πῶς ο<*>ν διέζης ἢ πόθεν μηδὲν ποιῶν; Συκ. τῶν τῆς πόλεώς εἱμ᾽ ἐπιμελητὴς πραγμάτων καὶ τῶν ἰδίων πάντων. Δίκ. σύ; τί παθών; Συκ. βούλομαι. * * * * * * * * * * * * Συκ. κατηγορεῖ δὲ τίς; Δίλ. ο: βουλόμενος. Συκ. οὐκοῦν ἐκεῖνός εἰμ᾽ ἐγώ, ὡς εἰς ἔμ᾽ ἤκει τῆς πόλεως τὰ πράγματα. δίκας ἴσας καὶ ὁμοὶας δίδωσι—see the beginning of ch. 79: i. 28, 1, δίκας ἤθελον δοῦναι = they were ready to submit to judgment or arbitration: i. 140, 3, δίκας τῶν διαφορῶν ἀλλήλοις διδόναι καὶ δέχεσθαι. ω̈στε—of conditions; ch. 17, 13 etc. ἐπιμαχεῖν denotes a defensive alliance, as explained in ch. 48, 9. ἀποδεῖξαι—‘to name’, or appoint: Hdt. i. 125, στρατηγὸν ᾶποδεικνὑναι. ἀρχήν—accusative of respect with αὐτοκράτορας, ‘of independent authority’. Classen takes it in the adverbial sense ‘to begin with’, i.e. from the first; for which Thucydides elsewhere uses τὴν α:ρχήν, ii. 74, 3: iv. 98, 1: vi. 4, 5: vi. 56, 1. ἀρχήν is no doubt common in Herodotus, and is found in other writers; but it seems unlikely that Thucydides would depart from his usual form in one instance only when his meaning would be rendered doubtful. It is also to be noticed that in the great majority of cases both ἀρχήν and τὴν ἀρχήν are used in negative sentences. τοῦ μή—i. 4, τοῦ τὰς προσόδους μᾶλλον ἰέναι αὐτῷ: Goodwin § 798. καταφανεῖς—especially to the Lacedaemonians. We may compare the account in iv. 22, where the Spartans refused to confer with the Athenian assembly, but were willing to meet select commissioners.
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