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μετὰ Κλεαρίδου—Clearidas was sent out from Sparta and appointed governor of Amphipolis the year before, iv. 132, 3. For the Ionic 3rd plural ἐτετάχατο (=ντο) see note on iv. 31, 2, ὧδε γὰρ διετετάχατο.

τέως μέν—followed by ἔπειτα without δέ, as is often the case with πρῶτον μέν: vi 61, 6, τέως μὲν...ω:ς δέ.

τῇ ἕδρᾳ—so ii. 18, 3, ἐν τῇ καθέδρᾳ, of the delay of Archidamus at Oenoe: Hdt ix. 41, περιημέκτεε τῇ ὲδρῇ, ‘was galled at remaining inactive’.

πρὸς οἵαν μετὰ οἵας—so vii. 75, 6, ἀπὸ οἵας...ἐς οι:´αν: cf. Soph. Fl. 750, α:νωλόλυξε τὸν νεανίαν, οἶ᾽ ἔργα δράσας οἷα λαγχάνει κακά. οἴκοθεν stands first for the sake of emphasis. Several editors approve of Dobree's alteration of ξυνῆλθον into ξυνεξῆλθον. ἀνεπιστημοσύνης—‘incompetence’; only here in Thucydides, though the adjective is found more than once.

αἰσθόμενος τὸν θροῦν—so iv. 66, 2: viii. 79, 1 etc.: cf. ch. 30, 1. διὰ τὸ...καθημένους—a confusion between the par ticipial construction and διὰ τό with the infinitive; so iv. 63, 1, διὰ τὸ...παρόντας: in viii. 105, 2, most manuscripts have διὰ τὸ...διώκοντες. Kruger however takes διὰ τὸ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ as forming one expression ‘owing to their (being) stationary’, like ἐκ τοῦ ἐπὶ πλεῖστον, i. 2, 2. Stahl takes καὶ οὐ βουλὀμενος by itself ‘although he did not wish it’; and makes αὐτούς governed by ἀναλαβὼν ἦγεν. The result is a sentence which can indeed be construed, but could scarcely have been written by anyone, while αὐτούς is in an almost impossible position.

ἀναλαβών—ch. 64, 23, ἀναλαβόντες τοὺς ξυμμάχους. Here it means calling his men to their ranks and setting his army in motion.

ἐχρήσατο τῷ τρόπῳ—‘he adopted the principle the success of which at Pylos gave him confidence in his abihty’. He prepared, that is, for a general assault upon the city at all points. τρόπῳ is then explained by what follows, and denotes the plan of attack. Many editors take τρόπῳ of Cleon's ‘temper of mind’ and rash confidence; but would not this suggest the imperfect rather than ἐχρήσατο? The sense is certainly good, and the aorist might imply a sudden fit of rashness. ᾧπερ is an instrumental dative, or dative of accompaniment, with εὐτυχήσας; cf. ch. 1, 7, and for dat. ch. 14, 9.

ἐς τὴν Πύλον—the preposition ἐς is very loosely used by Thucydides to denote relation of any kind. Here it means the operations at or ‘in respect of’ Pylos, or Pylos is used in a general sense and includes Sphacteria. φρονεῖν τι—‘to have intelligence’; vi. 89, 6, οἱ φρονοῦντές τι: so λέγειν τι)(οὐδὲν λέγειν.

κατὰ θέαν—‘to reconnoitre’; this phrase, like some of the rest of the sentence, sounds like a contemptuous reminiscence of Cleon's actual words; cf. ἐθεᾶτο infr. and ch. 10, 9.

τὴν μείζω—as opposed to his παροῦσα στρατία, ch. 6, 18: see the beginning of ch. 6. τῷ ἀσφαλεῖ—with the certainty of success which a superior force would ensure: a sort of instrumental dative. Arnold compares vi 55, 3, πολλῷ τῷ περιόντι τοῦ ἀσφαλοῦς κατεκράτησε. περισχήσων—here ‘to gain the superiority’ as in viii. 105, 1, τῷ ἔργῳ πολὺ περισχὀντες. In ch. 71 and elsewhere it is used of outflanking or extending beyond an enemy's force. βίᾳ αἱρεῖν is the regular phrase for taking by assault, as opposed to a siege.

ἐλθών τε—‘so having come’. ἐπὶ λόφου—see ch. 10, 32. τὸ λιμνῶδες—cf. iv. 108, 1, ἄνωθεν μεγάλης οὔσης ἐπὶ πολὺ λίμνης τοῦ ποταμοῦ. It was this lake which helped to make Amphipolis of such importance as the key of the Thrace-ward district. ἐπὶ τῇ Θρᾳκῃ—‘over against’ or ‘commanding Thrace’: iv. 14, fin. ἔμενον κατὰ χώραν ἐπὶ τῇ Πύλῳ.

καὶ γὰρ οὐδέ—the negatives here require attention: οὐδέ, ‘also not’, joins the whole sentence to what has gone before, while οὔτε...οὔτε connect ἐπὶ τοῦ τείχους and κατὰ πύλας ἐξήει, the final verb ἐξῄει being irregularly written instead of ἐξιών. See note on iv. 114, 3, οὐδὲ γὰρ ἐπὶ δουλείᾳ οὐὃέ κ.τ.λ., where there is no correspondence between οὐδέ .οὐδέ.

μηχανάς—used especially of scaling-ladders, according to Poppo. κατῆλθεν—this reading is probably right, and means ‘landed’, referring to Cleon's arrival at Eion; cf. Eur. Iph. T. 39, ὂς ἂν κατέλθῃ τήνδε γῆν This view is approved by Grote and Shilleto. The meaning is that Cleon regretted that he had not brought his own siege appliances, instead of waiting till they could be made, or furnished by the allies who were expected. Such things were soon constructed: thus the Spartans sent round the coast ἐπὶ ξύλα ἐς μηχανάς as soon as they resolved to attack Pylos (iv. 13, 1).

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  • Commentary references from this page (14):
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.2
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.18
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.108
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.114
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.13
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.132
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.14
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.31
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.63
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.66
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.89
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.75
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.105
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.79
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