II. The Character of the Conspiracy. (
- CHAP 1. Catiline is gone: the city breathes again; there is now open war, and no longer a concealed intestine conflict.
- 2. He ought to have been put to death; but all were not convinced: now, his guilt is manifest.
- 3. His worthless partisans remain at Rome; but they are powerless, being closely watched.
- 4. Let them follow him. He was the leader of all scoundrels and profligates.
- 5. His associates are desperate but contemptible; let them depart or take the consequences.
- 8-10. Character of Catiline's partisans:
- (i) rich men in debt; -- (ii) men eager for power and wealth; -- (iii) Sulla's veterans; -- (iv) ruined men, hoping for any change; -- (v) criminals; -- (vi) profligates and debauchees, men of Catiline's own stamp.
- 11. Superiority of the patriot forces arrayed against them.
When Cicero had finished his speech and taken his seat, Catiline attempted to reply, but was interrupted by the cries and reproaches of the Senators. With a few threatening words, he rushed from the temple, and left the city the same night, for the camp of Manlius. The next morning the consul assembled the people, and announced to them the news, in the triumphant speech which follows. 1.
Catiline is gone. He ought to have been put to death: but the time was not ripe, for all were not convinced of his guilt.
ejecimus, expelled (with violence); emisimus, let [him] go. The words vel . . . vel (or, if you like) imply that the same act may be called by either name. ipsum, of his own accord. verbis prosecuti may apply as well to kind words of dismissal as to invective. abiit, simply, is gone; excessit, has retreated before the storm; evasit, has escaped by stealth; erupit, has broken forth with violence, — a climax of expression, but nearly identical in sense. moenibus (dat. following comparabitur), against, etc. atque (adding with emphasis), and so. hunc quidem, him at any rate. sine controversia, without dispute unquestionably. versabitur, will be busy. campo, foro, curia, parietes: observe the narrowing climax. loco motus est, he lost his vantage-ground: a military expression, hence the simple abl.; § 428, f (258, a, N.2); cf. B. 229, I; G. 390, 2, N.2; H. 463 (414, ii); H-B. 408, 2, a. nullo impediente, i.e. his defenders till now could screen him by forms of law. justum (if retained in the text), regular, in due form; cf. note on latrocinio, p. 109,1. I.
quod . . . extulit etc.: § 572, b (333, b); B. 331, V, a; G. 542; H. 588, i (540, iv, N.); H.-B. 594, c. cruentum (pred.), reeking with blood. vivis nobis (abl. abs.), leaving us alive. civis: acc. plur. jacet, etc., lies prostrate, etc. retorquet oculos begins the figure of a wild beast, which is continued in faucibus. profecto, no doubt. quae quidem, which really. quod . . . projecerit: see note on quod extulit, 1.9, above; for mood, see § 592,3 (341, d); B. 323; G. 541; H. 588, ii (516, ii); H.-B. 535, 2, a. 2.
For the contents of this and the following section, cf. Cat. 1, sects. 27, 28 where the supposed complaint against Cicero for not having put Catiline to death and his reply to it are given at greater length. qualis omnis: acc. plur. oportebat: § 522, a (3", c); B. 304, 3, a; G. 254, R.2; H. 583 (511, I, N.1); H.-B. 582, 3, a. qui . . . accuset, as to accuse: § 535 (320); B. 283, I ; G. 631,2; H. 591, I (503, i); H-B. 521, I. ista: for gender, see § 296, a (195, d); cf. B. 250,3; G. 211, R.5; H. 396, 2 (445, 4); H.-B. 326, I. interfectum esse: § 486, b, N. (288, d); B. 270, 2, a; G. 280, R.2; H.-B. 582, 3, a, footnote 2; observe the emphatic position. oportebat: for tense, see note on Cat. 1, p. 100, l. 13. hujus imperi: see note on Cat. 1, p. 104, l. 16. res publica, the public interest. quam multos, etc.: the passages in brackets are probably spurious; it will be observed that they merely repeat —the preceding statement in each case.
cum (causal) viderem, seeing: its obj. is fore ut possem (which is the apod. of si multassem) ; § 569, a (288, f); B. 270,3; G. 248; H. 619, 2 (537,3); H-B. 472, c ne . . . probata: nearly equivalent to cum ne vos quidem. . . probaretis: implying that if they do not sustain the act, much less will the people at large. multassem: for fut. perf. of direct; § 589, 3 (337, 3); B. 319, B; G. 657, 5; H. 646 (527, i). fore ut, the result would be that, etc. at . . . possetis, result clause explaining huc. videretis: § 593 (342); B. 324, I G. 663, I; H. 652 (529, ii); H.-B. 539; if not dependent on possetis, it would be videbetis. quem quidem, whom, by the way. intellegatis: § 565 (331, i); B. 295, 6; G. 553, 2; H. 564, ii, I (499, 3); H-B. 531, 2. quod . . . exierit: § 592, 3(341, d); B. 323; G. 539; H. 588, ii (5I6, ii); H-B. 535, 2, N.2. mihi: eth. dat.; as if, I notice; § 380 (236); B. 188, 2, b; G. 351; 11.432 (389); H.-B. 372. aes alienum, etc., i.e. petty debts run up in cook-shops and the like; not like the heavy mortgages spoken of afterwards. reliquit: notice the emphatic position. quos viros: for a characterization of Catiline's partisans, see sects. 18-23.
His worthless partisans remain at Rome, but are powerless: let them follow him. He was the ringleader of all scoundrels and profligates. Let his associates depart or take the consequences. 3.
prae, in comparison with. Gallicanis, i.e. those permanently stationed in Cisalpine Gaul. The ager Gallicus below was that strip of sea-coast north of Picenum formerly occupied by the Senones, but at this time reckoned a part of Umbria. hoc dilecta refers to a levy recently raised. Q. Metellus (Celer): see note on Cat. 1, sect. 19, p. 107, l. 13. senibus, etc., i.e. those classes who naturally look forward to a revolution to mend their fortunes. luxuria = high-livers: abstract for concrete, as common in Latin and older English; Cf. Shakespeare, All's Well ii. I, 91: "Bring in the admiration"(i.e. this wonderful person). vadimonia deserere, desert their bondsmen, i.e. leave them in the lurch in their creditors' suits. edictum praetoris, in effect like a sheriff's writ. Any official order of a magistrate was an edictum. hos, as opposed to those he did take out. fulgent purpura, i.e displaying their rank as Senators, who alone had the right to wear the broad purple stripe (latus clavus) on the tunic. The reference, therefore, is to foppish young nobles. mallem: § 447, I (311, b); B. 280, 4; G. 258, and N.1; H. 556 (486, i); H.-B. 519, I, b. eduxisset: § 565(331, f a.); B. 295, 8; G. 546, R.2; H. 565, 2 (499, 2); H.-B. 5;9, I, c. si . . . permanent: a future condition; § 516, a, N. (307, a, N.); G. 228; H. 533, 2 (467, 5); H.-B. 571. mementote, i.e. let them remember that they are objects of suspicion and shall be watched accordingly. atque hoc, etc., i.e. their effrontery makes them still more a cause for alarm.
video, i.e. I know perfectly well. - cui sit, etc.: cf. Cat. 1, sect. 9. superioris noctis, i.e. three nights ago. ne, surely: an affirmative particle sometimes wrongly spelled nae. 4. ut . . . videretis: clause of result explaining quod. nisi vero: ironical (as usual), introducing a reductio ad absurdunt. (The si only doubles that in nisi.) non. . . jam, no longer. Aurelia_ via_: see Cat. 1, sect. 24.
rem publicam: § 397, d (240, d); B. 183; G. 343, 1 H. 421 (381); H.-B. 399 sentinam, refuse (see Cat. 1, p. 104, l. 22). ejecerit: the conclusion is implied in O fortunatam. exhausto, drained off (cf. sentina). recreata, invigorated. toti Itali: § 429, 2 (258,1 2); B. 228, I, b; G. 388; H. 485, I (425, 2); H.-B. 436, a. subjector, forger; circumscriptor, swindler. perditus, abandoned wretch. hosce: § 146, a, N.1 (101, footnote); B. 87, footnote 2; G. 104, i, N 1; H. 178, 2 (186, I); H.-B. 138, 2, c.
asciverit: for tense, see § 485, c (287, c); B. 268, 6; G. 513; H. 550 (495, vi); H.-B. 481. 5.
ut . . . possitis: § 532 (317, c); B. 282, 4; G. 545, R.3; Cf. H. 568, 4 (499, 2, N.) ; H.-B. 502, 2, c. diversa studia. In another passage (Cael. 13) Cicero ascribes to Catiline: Cum tristibus severe, cum remissis jucunde, cum senibus graviter, cum juventute comiter, cum facinorosis audaciter, cum libidinosis luxuriose vivere. in dissimili ratione, in different directions. ludo, the regular training-school. gladiatorio: see Cat. 1, p. 110, l. 31, and note. levior, etc.: the Roman actors, though some of them achieved distinction, were generally regarded as a low class of men. tamen, i.e. though a companion of such dissolute persons, yet he possessed the qualities of fortitude and endurance so much admired by the Romans. exercitatione (abl. of means), etc., trained by the practice of debaucheries and crimes to endure, etc. frigore . . . perferendis: abl. with adsuefactus; § 507, N.1 (301, N.); G. 431; cf. H-B. 612, iv, 431. fortis, a strong and able fellow. istis, those creatures: § 297, c (102, c); B. 246, 4; G. 306, N.; H. 507, 3 (450, i, N.); H.-B. 274, 4. 117 11 cum . . . consumeret (not concessive), while consuming. subsidia, etc., i.e. means (his uncommon powers of body and mind) which might have been used, etc.
sui: § 301, b (196, c); B. 244, 4; G. 309, 2; H. 503, 2 (449, 3); H.-B. 264, 2. audaciae, acts of audacity. obligaverunt, encumbered. res, property; fides, credit. libido, i.e. luxurious habits and tastes. quidem (concessive), no doubt homines, viris: observe the difference in sense. mihi: the ethical dat. gives the phrase a familiar and contemptuous turn which may be reproduced in English by forsooth. obli^ti: observe the quantity. caedem, etc.: notice the strong contrast between the character of these worn-out debauchees and the sanguinary nature of their threats.
instare, is close at hand; plane merely emphasizes the idea of the verb. propagarit: for tense, see § 516, c, N. (307, c, a.) ; G. 595, N.2; H. 540(473). pertimescamus, possit: subj. of characteristic. unius: Pompey, just returning from his triumphs in the East. quacumque ratione, sc. fieri potest resecanda erunt, shall need the knipe (lit. must be cut away): the figure is derived from surgery. si. . permanent: § 516, a, N. (307, a, N.); G. 228; H. 533, 2 (467,5); H.-B. 572. exspectent: hort. subj. in apod.; § 516, d (307, d); B. 305, 2 G. 595; H. 580 (508, 4); H.-B. 532,1.
Catiline is not in exile: he has joined his hostile army. Men say the consul has driven him into banishment; would the charge were true! 6.
etiam, still (after all that has been done). quod, obj. of adsequi, if I could effect it (referring to ipsos, etc.), i.e. their expulsion. enim, i.e. the idea is absurd, as is implied in the irony following. quid, tell me: i.e. "is that possible ?" in view of the circumstances, which he proceeds to narrate. hesterno die qualifies convocavi. detuli: technical term for laying a matter before the Senate; cf. referre (ad senatum) in the Vocabulary.
quaesivi, etc.: see Cat. 1, sect. 9. necne: § 335,d(211,d); B. 162,4; G.459; H.380, 1 (353, N.1); H.-B. 234, a. ei: dat. of agent; § 375 (232, a); B. 189, 2; G. 354; H. 431, 2 (388, I); H-B. 373, 2. teneretur, was caught pararet: for pluperf. (see note on Cat. 1, p. 100, l. 13). securis, fascis: the use of these signified that Catiline intended to assume the authority and imperium of consul (see Fig. 25, p.290). aquilam: see Cat. 1, p. 109, l. 6, and note.
eiciebam: conative imperf.; § 471, c (277, c); B. 260, 3; G. 233; H. 534, 2 (469, I); H.-B. 484. credo: ironical, as very often in this parenthetical use. suo nomine, i.e. not by Catiline's order; the whole is, of course, ironical, as is already indicated by credo. Massiliam: Marseilles, an ancient Greek city of Gaul, always faithful and friendly to Rome. It was a favorite place of sojourn for Romans who went into voluntary exile. 7. condicionem, terms. nunc, even now. pertimuerit, take alarm. spe conatuque: referring of course to his treasonable hopes and designs.
est mihi tanti, it is worth my while: § 417 (252, a); cf. B. 203, 3; G. 380, I, R.; H. 448 (404); H.-B. 356, I. depellatur: § 528(314); B. 310,ii; G.573; H. 587(313,i); H.-B. 529. sane (concessive), f you like (see Vocab.). invidiae, etc.: rather than have his predictions verified in this way, Cicero prefers the unjust odium of having arbitrarily driven Catiline to exile. aliquando, some day. quod. . . emiserim: § 592, 3 (341, d); B. 323; G. 541; H. 588, ii (516, ii); H-B. 535, 2, a. emiserim, eiecerim, let him go... drove him out si interfectus, etc.: he thus adroitly excuses himself to those who would have preferred harsher measures. Notice the identity in sound in profectus, interfectus, and observe how the argument a fortiori is brought out by the exact antithesis.
quamquam (corrective), and yet dictitant: notice the frequentative. nemo, not a man. misericors: his going to Manlius was his inevitable ruin, and yet, for all their pity, they still wished him to go. latrocinantem, in partisan warfare (see note on p.109, L I). vivere: § 583, c (336, c, N.2) ; G. 644, R3, b; cf. H. 613, 7 (535, i, 6); H.-B. 535, I, c. vivis nobis, i.e. without assassinating me.
Character of Catiline's partisans: (i) rich men in debt (sect. 18); (ii) men eager for power and wealth (sect. 19); (iii) old soldiers of Sulla (sect. 20); (iv) ruined debtors (sect. 21); (v) cutthroats and criminals (sect. 22); (vi) debauchees (sects. 22, 23). 8.
sanare: cf. note on vivere, 1.8, above. sibi, for their own good: for reflexive, see § 301, b, N. (I 96, c, N.); G. 520. placare, gain aver. comparentur, are made up. singulis, to them one by one. si quam, sc. adferre.
est eorum, consists of those (pred. gen.). possessiones, landed property. dissolvi, sc. a possessionibus: i.e. although they might pay their debts by the sale of their estates, they cannot make up their minds to do so. voluntas et causa, their purposes and claims, i.e. their position before the world. tu: the use of the singular, as if he were addressing one of these men directly, gives point to his reproach of the whole class. sis: § 444 (268); B. 277; G. 466; H. 5591 4 (484, v); H.-B. 503. tuas: emphatic. tabulas novas, new accounts, i.e. a general scaling down of debts by legislative enactment, such as that, B.C. 86, "which reduced every private claim to the fourth part of its nominal amount, and cancelled three-fourths in favor of the debtors." auctionariae: a forced sale of their estates would give them "new accounts" (tabulae) by reducing their debts; auctionarinae [tabulae] would be the placards advertising the sale in question. quod, obj. of facere, relating to the forced sale. neque, and not, connects facere and certare. certare cum usuris, struggle to meet the interest: § 413, b (248, b); H. (419, II); H.-B. 419, 4. fructibus: abl. of means. uteremur, we should find. hosce: more emphatic than hos. o vota facturi, likely to offer prayers, i.e. they will confine themselves to sympathizing with Catiline's revolt; no active cooperation with him need be feared from them. 9.
premuntur: notice the emphasis,—this class is insolvent; the former class is heavily in debt, but has resources. quieta re publica: no poor man could hope to gain political prominence at Rome in ordinary times; these men therefore look to anarchy to achieve their political ends. scilicet, in fact desperent, have no hope. me . . . vigilare, etc., indir. disc. dependent on the idea of saying implied in praecipiendum: § 580, a (336, N.2); G. 652, R.2; H. 642, I (523, i, N.); H.-B. 589, a. magnos animos: see Vocab. under animus. praesentis agrees with deos: will be at hand, and, etc. quod si, now if (as often). The quod is merely adverbial acc.: § 397, a (240, b); B. 185, 2; G. 610, R.2; H. 416, 2 (378, 2); cf. H.-B. 388, a, N.; not like quod in 1.4, above. jam, at once. sint adepti: fut. cond. less vivid. cum summo furore: § 412, a (248, N.); G. 399; 14.473, 31 N. (419, iii, N.1); H.-B. 445, 3. non vident, don't they see? § 332, a (210, b); B. 162, 2, d; G. 453; H. 378, I (351, 3); H.-B. 231, I, a. adepti sint, for the fut. perf. indic. of the direct disc. fugitivo, i.e. one of their own slaves; for, when law is overthrown, brute force will control all. sit necesse: § 516, d (307, d); G. 595; H. 580 (508, 4); cf. H.-B. 582, I.
ex eis coloniis: Sulla rewarded his veterans (120,000 in number) by liberal grants of land, partly in municipia already existing, partly in new colonies which he founded for them. universas, as a whole. civium esse, consist of etc. ei sunt coloni, these are colonists of this sort (as opposed to the general character of the colonies, which Cicero does not wish to impugn). beati, men of wealth. Sulla, etc., Sulla will have to be raised from the dead, for they can have no such hope in Catiline. agrestis, farmers, not Sulla's colonists. veterum: alluding to the plunder of the disorderly times following Sulla's victory over the Marian party. illorum temporum, i.e. the times of proscription. 10.
vacillant, stagger under. vadimoniis, etc.: the three steps in bankruptcy,—bail, judgment, and sale of property; proscriptio is strictly the public notice that property is for sale. infitiatores lentos, dilatory debtors (lit. deniers, i.e. persons who avoid payment of their debts by every possible subterfuge). stare, keep their feet ita, in such a way. non modo, etc.: § 217, e (149, c); B. 343, 2, a; G. 482,5, R.1; H. 656, 3 (552, 2); H.-B. 299.
non revoco: § 467 (276, b); B. 259, 2; G. 233; H. 530 (467, 6); H.-B. 484. carcer: this is the Tullianum, a dungeon near the Forum, still existing. It was properly a jail for temporary detention, as imprisonment was not recognized in Rome as a form of punishment. numero, in order; genere, in rank. imberbis: a mark of effeminacy; bene barbatos, full-bearded, doubtless a military affectation, as, until lately, the wearing of a mustache. velis, veils, rather than the substantial toga, which was of unbleached wool. The whole description suggests foppishness and effeminacy.
saltare et cantare, these accomplishments were hardly regarded as respectable by the better classes. spargere, i.e. in food or drink: poisoning has in all ages been carried to a high art in Italy. scitote: notice the second (fut.) imperat. (regularly used in this word). his . . . noctibus: although this was spoken Nov. 9, yet the Roman year was at this time in such a state of confusion that the true date was probably some time in December, just when the winter was setting in. 11.
These followers of Catiline contrasted with the defenders of the state. The issue of such a contest cannot be doubtful.
urbes coloniarum, etc.: the colonies and free communities (municipia) included the walled cities (urbes) in their territory. These well-manned walls would be more than a match for Catiline's rude works (tumulis).
causas, i.e. the cause of the conspirators and that of the state in their moral aspect (cf. in eius modi, etc., 1.12, below). ex eo ipso, from the very comparison. bona ratio, good counsel; perdita, desperate. 12.
custodiis vigilisque: see Cat. 1, sect. 8 and note. consultum, etc., provident measures have been taken. coloni municipesque: a colony differed from a municipium in being founded by Roman (or Latin) citizens, who retained from the first their citizenship, either in whole or in part. By Cicero's time there was no longer any real difference between the two classes of towns; but the colonies always retained a certain precedence in rank. hac . . . excursione: see Introd., p. 113 of text. gladiatores: see p. 117, l. 5. quamquam (corrective), referring to manum certissimam tamen: pointing the contrast between the suppression of this body and Catiline's expectations from them. vocari videtis: the members of the Senate had their gathering place (senaculum) adjoining the curia, and were summoned by heralds (praecones) from this into the building. If any were absent, the heralds were sent to their houses. The curia and senaculum were visible from the place of assembly in the Forum, and the heralds could no doubt be seen going their rounds.
Citizens need not fear: the consul will protect the City. The conspirators warned. There shall be no disturbance. The gods will lend their aid.
monitos . . . volo: 497, c, N. (292, d, N.); G. 537; H.-B. 605, 3. solutior: for compar., see § 291, a (93, a); B. 240, I G. 297; H. 498 (444, I); H.-B. 241, 2. quod, etc., as for the rest, i.e. what remains to be done. horum and his relate to the citizens by whom he is surrounded, and imply a gesture. cujus: referring, like qui, to the subject of sentiet. 13.
me, etc., abl. abs. togato, in perfect peace, i.e. without any military demonstration: the toga was the regular dress of the Roman in time of peace. illud: in appos. with ut . . . possitis: I will secure that, etc. neque. . . -que, not... and.
quibus . . . ducibus, under whose guidance. quam urbem... hanc, this city which: § 307, b, N. (200, b, N.); G. 616; H. 399, 5(445, 9); or (repeating the noun) the city which, etc.,— that city.