previous




nunc, opposed to the time of the actio prima, which he has just referred to.

uno genere, this one class of crimes.

tot horas . . . dicam: § 466 (276, a) ; B. 259, 4; G. 230; H. 533 (467, iii, 2); H.-B. 485.

tenerem: for tense, see § 485,j (287, i); B. 268,7, b; G. 511, R.2; H. 547, I (495, i) ; cf. H.-B. 481.

de tanta re, etc.: Cicero has now arrived at the climax of his accusation: the case of Gavius is so outrageous that it would require all his powers to characterize it. But, he says, he has already used the strongest language of which he is master in describing other and less heinous crimes, and he has not attempted to keep the attention of the jurors by variety in the charges What then can he do to make this horrible case, the most abominable of the crimes of Verres sufficiently impressive? There is but one thing left to do he will tell the bare facts, which need no eloquence to emphasize them.

rem (emphat.), the bare facts.

in medio, before you.


in illo numero Cicero has been describing the treatment of a number of fugitives from the insurrectionary army of Sertorius in Spain who had made their way to Sicily after the death of Sertorius, B.C. 72, and the overthrow of his faction by Pompey

lautumiis, the stone pits (ancient quarries) at Syracuse used as a prison.

Messanam (now (Messina) the point of Sicily nearest Italy Messana founded as a Greek colony in the eighth century B.C., was at this time one of the very few privileged towns (civitates foederatae) of Sicily. It was specially favored by Verres, and, according to Cicero, was an accomplice of his iniquities. Fig. 15 shows a representation of the pharos (lighthouse) of Messana from a coin of Sex. Pompey ; the reverse has a representation of Scylla.

Reginorum: Rhegium is almost in sight of Messana

odore, breath.

recta, sc. via.

in praetorio, the house (or official residence) of the praetor.

adjutricem, etc.: § 282, c (184, ,b); B. 169,3; G. 321; H.393, I (363, I); H.-B. 319.

magistratum Mamertinum, a magistrate of Messana: the city of Messana had been treacherously taken possession of by a body of mercenaries, who called themselves Mamertini (children of Mars), about B.C. 282. Though the name of the city was not changed, its citizens were from this time called Mamertini.


exspectabant, were on the watch to see.

quo tandem, how far: tandem (as also nam) gives a sense of wonder to the question.

expediri, to be got ready, i.e. by untying the fasces (rods and axe), which were the badge of the praetor's imperium.

meruisse (sc. stipendia), served as a soldier.

Panhormi (all harbor).

negotiaretur, i.e. as head or agent of some house engaged in speculation (cf. Verr. 1, sect. 20). This kind of business was generally carried on by Roman equites, and on a large scale.

fugitivorum, runaway slaves, who had been concerned in the frightful servile war of Spartacus, B.C. 73-71.

esset: subj. of characteristic.


caedebatur: observe the emphatic position. This imperf. and those following make a lively description of the scene instead of a mere statement of the facts.

audiebatur, could be heard: § 471, f (277, g); G. 233.

commemoratione, claim.

pestem, accursed thing.


lex Porcia: this forbade the scourging of citizens.

leges Semproniae (of Caius Gracchus): these gave Roman citizens the right of appeal to the judgment of the whole people in capital cases, even against the military imperium. In civil life this right had existed ever since the foundation of the republic. Cf., in English law, the right of trial "by one's peers."

tribunicia potestas see note on Veri 1 sect 44 (p 43,1 3 )

non inhibebat Cf note on audiebatur (1 1)

ut (interrog), how

Glabrionem subject of facere

ut . . . dimitteret result clause, in appos with id.

consilium jury he feared that the lynch law would get the start of a legal verdict

repetisse, inflicted (lit. exacted, punishment being regarded as a forfeit).

veritus esset has for its subject populus Romanus. Observe the exactness of tense-relations expressed by the pluperf. and the periphrastic esset persoluturus, was not likely to pay.


quid . . . sit, what will happen to you.

Gavium istum, that G. of yours (i.e. the G. whom you misrepresent).

repentinum, suddenly discovered.

neque, etc., and this I will show, etc. Notice that in Latin the connective attracts the negative whenever it can.

aliquis: Gavius was a very common name in South Italy.

ad arbitrium tuum, at your discretion (i.e. as many as you like).

sero, too late (for you, but not too late for the court).

judices, obj. of doceant.


patronis: see note on Rosc. Am., p. 3, l. 17.

istuc ipsum, that single fact.

nuper tu, etc.: of course an imaginary incident, since this oration was never delivered.

ideo, for this reason, i.e. quod . . . quaereret.

jam, i.e. after you have said that.

ex eo genere: explained by the clause non qui . . . dicerent (characteristic).


induatur, etc.: § 156, a (111, a) ; B. 175, 2, d; G. 218; H. 407 (377); H.-B. 288, 3; tie himself up and strangle himself (as in a noose) ; Cf. our "give the man rope enough and hell hang himself."

qui esset, what he was (i.e. whether a citizen or not).

si . . . ducerere, quid . . . clamitares, etc.: in this past condition, cont. to fact, the imperf. is used instead of the pluperf., because the supposition is general rather than particular ; § 517, a (308, a) ; G. 597, R.1 ; H. 579, I (510, N.2) ; H.-B. 581; if you, caught, etc. had ever been in the hands of men who were dragging you off to punishment, what other cry would you have raised than, "I am a Roman citizen"?

profuisset, would have availed, i.e. in the case supposed (as defined in the preceding sentence): thus profuisset involves its own protasis; § 522 (311); B. 305, 1; G. 600, 1; H. 575, 9 (507, N.7); H.-B. 582, 4. It is a complete proposition, which is made conditional by si; § 523 (311, d) ; H.-B. 582,4: it is also made the protasis of a new apod., potuit, 1.15; § 522, a (311, c); B. 304, 3; G. 597, R.3, a; H. 583 (511, I, N.3) ; H.-B. 582, 3, a.

qui, concessive ; cum, causal.

usurpatione, claim (lit. using the word).


quo = ad quos.

cognitoribus, vouchers.

legum existimationis, obj. gen. with periculo.

continentur, are restrained.

sermonis . . . societate, by fellowship in language, rights, and interests.


tolle, a sort of protasis: § 521, b (310, b) ; B. 305, 2; G. 598; H. 560, 3 (487, 3); H.-B. 497, 2 ; the apod. is jam . . . praecluseris (ll.6-9, below).

quod velit (subj. of integral part), any he pleases.

quod . . . ignoret, because one may not know him.

liberas civitates: the allied states in the provinces, which were not strictly under the jurisdiction of the praetors.

praecluseris, fut. perf.

adservasses, you might have kept.

custodiis: abl. of means.

cognosceret, should he know: equiv. to a protasis with si ; § 521, b (330, b) ; B. 305, 2; G. 598; H. 573, N. (507, iii, i); H.-B. 504, l.

si ignoraret: Cicero here ironically lays down, under the form of a calm and reasonable alternative, the principle that Verres might crucify any Roman citizen whom he did not personally know and who could not furnish a rich man to identify him.

hoc juris: § 346, a, 3 (216, a, 3); B. 201,2; G. 369; H. 442,1 (397, 3); H.-B. 346.

at . . . tolleretur: clause of purpose.


hostis, i.e. by his acts he has virtually declared himself the open enemy of the state as if he were a foreign power making war on the rights of Roman citizens (hence hostis rather than inimicus).

non illi: both words are emphatic, it is not to this person (in particular) but to, etc., that you were hostile.

quid enim attinuit, etc., for what did it have to do with the case that you should order, etc.: why should you have ordered, etc., unless by these gratuitous severities you wished to show your hatred of the very name of citizen?

fretum, the strait of Messina.

divisa, thus divided.

alumnum, foster-child, i.e. adopted citizen.

Observe the double climax: facinus, scelus, parricidium ; vincire, verberare, necare. For the crucifixion of a citizen Cicero can find no word strong enough ; hence the summit of the climax is reached in quid dicam?

parricidium: for the horror with which this crime was regarded by the Romans, see Rosc. Am., sects. 28, 29.

in comitio: i.e. publicly in Rome and in the very centre of Roman freedom and Roman life. The comitium was an open space north of the Forum, on higher ground (see Plan of Forum, top) ; it was used for the most ancient comitia, the curiata (in which the people were assembled by the thirty hereditary curiae), for hearing lawsuits, and for contiones. The curia, or Senate-house, fronted toward the comitium.

quod, i.e. that point which.

celebritate, i.e. as being a crowded thoroughfare.

potuit, sc. fieri.

praetervectione, etc., on the track of all who sail to and fro (by the Strait of Messina, the necessary route to Greece).


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

hide Dates (automatically extracted)
Sort dates alphabetically, as they appear on the page, by frequency
Click on a date to search for it in this document.
72 BC (1)
282 BC (1)
hide References (13 total)
  • Commentary references from this page (13):
    • Cicero, Against Verres, 1.1.20
    • Cicero, Against Verres, 2.2.28
    • Cicero, Against Verres, 2.2.29
    • A. A. Howard, Benj. L. D'Ooge, G. L. Kittredge, J. B. Greenough, Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar, 156
    • A. A. Howard, Benj. L. D'Ooge, G. L. Kittredge, J. B. Greenough, Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar, 282
    • A. A. Howard, Benj. L. D'Ooge, G. L. Kittredge, J. B. Greenough, Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar, 346
    • A. A. Howard, Benj. L. D'Ooge, G. L. Kittredge, J. B. Greenough, Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar, 466
    • A. A. Howard, Benj. L. D'Ooge, G. L. Kittredge, J. B. Greenough, Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar, 471
    • A. A. Howard, Benj. L. D'Ooge, G. L. Kittredge, J. B. Greenough, Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar, 485
    • A. A. Howard, Benj. L. D'Ooge, G. L. Kittredge, J. B. Greenough, Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar, 517
    • A. A. Howard, Benj. L. D'Ooge, G. L. Kittredge, J. B. Greenough, Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar, 521
    • A. A. Howard, Benj. L. D'Ooge, G. L. Kittredge, J. B. Greenough, Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar, 522
    • A. A. Howard, Benj. L. D'Ooge, G. L. Kittredge, J. B. Greenough, Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar, 523
hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: