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the temple of Diana on the Aventine (in Aventino, CIL vi. 32323, 10, 32: Censorin. de die nat. 23. 6) ascribed by tradition to Servius Tullius, who assembled here the representatives of the surrounding Latin towns and persuaded them to build this temple as the common sanctuary of the league, in imitation of the temple of Diana at Ephesus and its relation to the Ionian cities (Varro, LL v. 43: commune Latinorum Dianae templum; Liv. i. 45. 2-6; Dionys. iv. 26; de vir. ill. 7. 9). It was the oldest and most important temple on the Aventine, ordinarily known as Diana Aventina (Prop. iv. 8. 29), or Aventinensis (Fest. 165; Mart. vi. 64. 13 ; Val. Max. vii. 3. 1), and the Aventine itself was called collis Dianae (Mart. xii. 18. 3 ; vii. 73. I). It was near the thermae Suranae (q.v.; Mart. vi. 64. 13) and therefore probably just west of the church of S. Prisca on the clivus Publicius (BC 1914, 346). Besides aedes, it is referred to as templum (Varro, LL v. 43 ; Liv. i. 45), fanum (Liv. loc. cit.), νεώς (Dionys. iv. 26), ἱερόν (Dionys. iii. 43; x. 32; Plut. C. Gracch. 16), Ἀρτεμίσιον (App. BC. i. 26; Plut. q. Rom. 4),1 Dianium (Oros. v. 12; CIL vi. 33922: vestiarius de Dianio). The day of its dedication was 13th August (Mart. xii. 67. 2; Hemeroll. Allif. Vall. Amit. Ant. Philoc. Rust. ad Id. Aug., CIL 12. pp. 217, 240, 244, 248, 270, 281; Fast. Ant. ap. NS 1921, 106), celebrated throughout Italy (Stat. Silv. iii. . 59-60), especially by slaves (Fest. 343: servorum dies festus vulgo existimatur Idus Aug. quod eo die Servius Tullius natus servus aedem Dianae dedicaverit in Aventino cuius tutelae sint cervi).

This temple was rebuilt by L. Cornificius during the reign of Augustus (Suct. Aug. 29). In this form it may be shown on coins (BM Rep. ii. 15. 4355=Aug. 643); and it is probably represented under the name aedes Dianae Cornificianae on a fragment (2) of the Marble Plan (BC 1891, 210-216; CIL vi. 4305: aedituus Dianae Cornif.), where it is drawn as octostyle and dipteral, surrounded by a double colonnade. It was standing in the fourth century (Not. Reg. XIII), but no trace of it has been found. According to Censorinus (loc. cit.) one of the oldest sun-dials in Rome was on this temple, and it contained a wooden statue resembling that of Diana at Ephesus (Strabo iv. I. 5) brought to Rome from Marseilles, and another of marble (Plin. NH xxxvi. 32 : in magna admiratione est.... Hecate Ephesi in templo Dianae post aedem).

In the Augustan period it contained a bronze stele on which was engraved the compact between Rome and the Latin cities, probably a copy of the original (Dionys. iv. 26), and another with the lex Icilia de Aventino publicando of 456 B.C. (Dionys. x. 32). It must also have contained a lex arae Dianae, which served as a model for other communities (CIL iii. 1933 ; xi. 361 ; xii. 4333), and probably other ancient documents. The date of the founding of this temple, and its real significance, have been the subject of much discussion (HJ 157-159; Gilb. ii. 236-241 ; RE v. 332-333 ; DE i. 177 ; ii. 1734-1737 ; and esp. Merlin 203-226, 282-283, 303-305 and literature there cited). Cf. also Beloch, Romische Geschichte, 192.

1 He refers to it (ib. 3) as ναὸς Ἀρτέμιδος

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