COHORTIUM VIGILUM STATIONES
the seven barracks of the seven cohorts
of police and firemen, established by Augustus when he reorganised
the city in fourteen regions. Besides the stationes, there were fourteen
smaller posts, excubitoria (Baillie Reynolds, The Vigiles of Imperial Rome
, 43-63). From actual remains and inscriptions found in
situ, the location of four stationes is determined:
I on the east side of the via Lata, directly opposite the Saepta (Not.
Reg. VI; CILvi. 233, 1056, 1092, 1144, 1157, 1180, 1181, 1226; ib. (not
in situ) 2959-61). The plan of this statio is certainly preserved on a
fragment (36) of the Marble Plan, and represents a rectangular building
with its main axis extending due north and south at an angle of 18
degrees with the via Lata, and divided into three parts, each of which
consisted of a central court surrounded by a porticus and rows of
chambers. Extensive remains brought to light by the excavations of
the seventeenth century showed, however, that many changes had been
made in the barracks after the time of Severus (HJ 461, and literature
there cited; NS 1912, 337
II on the Esquiline (Not. Reg. V), at the south end of the Piazza
Vittorio Emanuele (CIL vi. 414
, 1059; ib. (not in situ) 2962-68,
32752; LS iii. 162
IV on the Aventine (Not. Reg. XII), just north of the church of S.
Saba (CIL vi. 219
, 220, 643, 1055; ib. (not in situ) 2972-76; Ann. d.
Inst. 1858, 285-289
; BC 1902, 204-206
; NS 1901, 10
; 1902, 270
465; 1925, 382-387
; HJ 187; PT 140).
V on the Caelian (Not. Reg. II), just west of the Macellum magnum,
the present church of S. Stefano Rotondo (CIL vi. 221
, 222, 1057, 1058;
ib. (not in situ) 2977-83). Besides the inscriptions, some traces of the
building were found in the sixteenth century (LS ii. 132
) and in 1820
The location of the other three barracks is uncertain:
III in Region VI
(Not.). The epigraphic evidence is indeterminate
(CIL vi. 2969-71
, 3761=31320, 32753-6), but the statio was probably
just inside the porta Viminalis, near the east corner of the baths of
Diocletian (HJ 374; BC 1872-3, 250; 1876, 107
, 174; Jord. i. I. 309;
; CIL xv. 7245
-this pipe may have been found near this site,
but in any case appears to refer to the first cohort).
VI in Region VIII
(Not.), but the inscriptions (CIL vi. 2984-92
are without topographical value. For a supposed excubitorium in the
forum, see NS 1902, 96
; BC 1902, 31
; Atti 570: CIL vi. 3909
VII in Region XIV
(Not.). No traces of the statio of this cohort
have been found, but considerable remains of one of the excubitoria were
discovered in 1866 at the monte de' Fiori, near the church of S. Crisogono.
The building, which appears to have been originally a large private house,
belongs to the second century with later additions, and on its walls
are many graffiti (CIL vi. 2998-3091
), dating from 215 to 245 A.D. and
containing much information in regard to the organisation of the corps.
The portion excavated consists of a central atrium with mosaic pavement
and a hexagonal fountain, and adjacent apartments, among them a
lararium and a balneum (Bull. d. Inst. 1867, 8-30
; Ann. d. Inst. 1874,
; cf. BC 1886, 266-269
; LR 549; CIL vi. 2993-2997
Mau, Gesch. d. Wandmalerei, 461). Some authorities place the other
excubitorium in the ninth region
, because in one of the graffiti (CIL vi.
3052) the seventh cohort is referred to as Cohor(s) vigul(um)
), i.e. at the Thermae Neronianae (Ann. d. Inst. 1874,
; CIL in loc.; LR 547; SJ 269, 270). But Baillie Reynolds (op. cit.
55-58) brings strong arguments in favour of the view that the eleventh
and fourteenth regions
were in the charge of the seventh cohort.