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[665] ἐκ begins the sentence, because the uppermost thought is that Telemachus has got out of the country.

τοσσῶνδε. This reading seems on the whole the best. See crit. note. The excited tone of the words renders unnecessary the presence of “δέ” as a conjunction. Compare the asyndeton with “ἄρξει” inf. It is usual to regard the ἐκ as separated by tmesis from οἴχεται, to which it belongs; the compound “ἐξοίχεσθαι” occurring in Il.6. 379 Il., 384.But it is simpler to describe “ἐκ” as an adverb, without touching the question of a tmesis. At any rate “ἐκ” does not govern “τοσσῶνδ᾽”, which depends upon ἀέκητι, which is a word placed in Homer either before or after the case depending on it, but which is never found standing without such a case. Transl. ‘Away this young lad has gone in despite of these numbers of us.’ τοσσῶνδε, as frequently “ὅδε” and its cases, is used with a gesture referring it to the speaker and to those to whom he belongs.

αὔτως. There is great disagreement as to the etymology, meaning, and orthography of this word. It is variously regarded as an epic form of “οὕτως”, as a direct adverb from “αὐτός”, or as an identical form of two distinct words, one of which is derived from “αὐτός” and the other from “ἄϝατος, αὐατός, ἄτη”, an impossible etymology suggested by the meaning ‘in vain’ sometimes attributed to “αὔτως”. See Döderl. Glossar. s. v. If it be taken as a collateral form of “οὕτως”, it will be coloured in each case by the tone of the context, and will mean, ‘so as you see,’ ‘just so and no more,’ etc., etc. Compare “κεῖμαι δ᾽ ἀμέριμνος οὕτωςSoph. Aj.1206; “μόλις οὕτωςAristoph. Nub.327; “οὕτω δὲ βασάνιζ̓ ἀπαγαγώνAristoph. Ran.625, and this same process will generally give an intelligible meaning to “αὔτως”. If it be regarded as the adverb of “αὐτός”, its signification may vary with the different meanings of the pronoun. See Autenrieth (Nägelsb. Il.1. 103), who sums up the meanings of “αὐτός” as (1) is; (2) ipse; (3) solus; (4) idem; the corresponding meanings of “αὔτως” being (1) ita; sic; including sic temere, ita tantum; (2) sua sponte; (3) solum; (4) item. Compare with (1) Il.5. 255; with (2) Il.1. 520; with (3) Il.13. 104; 18.198; with (4) Il.2. 138.But this seems too artificial a set of distinctions, and it is far more natural to find the special meaning of the adverb supplied in each case by the graphic power of the language, so easily appreciated by the quick perception of a Greek audience. It is impossible to accept such an account of the word as is given in Cramer, Anecd. Par.3. 125 Par., 4τὸ αὔτως εἰ μὲν δασύνεται γίνεται ἐκ τοῦ οὕτως, κατὰ τροπὴν τοῦ ο_ εἰς α_, καὶ σημαίνει τὸ ὁμοίως: εἰ δὲ ψιλοῦται σημαίνει τὸ ματαίως”. The ancients generally used the smooth breathing; the Venetus A. almost always. Bekker prefers to write “ὧς δ᾽ αὐτῶς”, but Hermann maintains “αὔτως” as an Aeolic form, with the characteristic breathing and accent. Any one who has heard the use of ‘so’ in German conversation, and has appreciated the various shades of meaning it can convey, has a ready parallel to the uses of “αὔτως”, i. e. “οὕτως”, while a shrug of the shoulders, a toss of the head, or the pointing of a finger would be all-sufficient to fix the meaning in which the speaker employed it on each occasion.

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