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[61] βουλὰς βουλεύειν. In such constructions the accusative is closely connected with the verb, but not with that kind of dependence in which the action or the verb passes over to the object; but rather the accusative represents the particular sphere in which the action expressed by the verb exerts itself. This construction properly belongs to intransitive verbs, though an analogous usage is found with verbs transitive. Generally speaking the use is peculiar to poetry, as we may see by comparing such an expression as “βίον ζῆν” with “βίον ἄγειν”; or, in English, ‘they have been asleep’ with such a phrase as ‘they have slept their sleep.’ It is a method of avoiding in poetry the constant employment of such common verbs as ‘to make,’ ‘to do,’ ‘to perform.’ But an additional emphasis is also given by the use of this cognate accusative, as may be seen from such expressions as ‘dicta dicere,’ or, Plaut. Aul.4. 1. 6, ‘servitutem servire.’

The most complete form of this cognate accusative is found when the verb and the noun are of identical stems. This is called by the grammarians “σχῆμα ἐτυμολογικόν”. And from the identity of stem, and therefore close similarity in sound, we find “τὸ τοιοῦτον σχῆμα παρονομασία καλεῖται” Schol. D. on Il.2. 121.As instances may be quoted, “ἀγορὰς ἀγορεύειν Il.2. 788, “ἱδρῶ ἱδροῦν Il.4. 27, “μάχην μάχεσθαι Il.12. 175; 15. 414, 673; 18. 533 [?]; Od.9. 54[?], “νείκεα νεικεῖν Il.20. 251, “πόλεμον πολεμίζειν Il.2. 121, “ἀπειλὰς ἀπειλεῖν Il.13. 219, “βουλὰς βουλεύειν” here and Il.10. 147, “δαῖτα δαινύναι Od.3. 67, “ἔπος εἰπεῖν Il.1. 108; Od.8. 397(this phrase is never used in the Iliad, unless “ἔπος” have the addition of a pronominal or adjectival qualification, as Il.1. 108; 3.204; 7. 375, 394; 15. 206; 20. 250; 24. 744; but in the Odyssey it is found without such an addition, as Od.8. 397; 16.469; 19. 98), “μῦθον μυθεῖσθαι Od.3. 140, “νόον νοεῖν Il.9. 104.The same construction is also found with verbs more distinctly transitive, as “αἰχμὰς αἰχμάσσειν Il.4. 324, “κτέρεα κτερεΐζειν Od.1. 291, compared with “κτερεΐζειν ἑταῖρον Il.23. 646, “ἔργα ἐργάζεσθαι Od.20. 72, “τέμενος τάμνειν Il.6. 194, “φυτεύειν φυτόν Od.9. 108, “χοὴν χεῖσθαι Od.10. 518.As a further stage we find instead of the accusative identical in stem with the verb, an accusative of the same meaning or of one closely allied, as “ἀπολωλέναι μόρον Od.1. 166, “ὄλλυσθαι οἶτον Il.8. 34, “ὀιζύειν κακά Il.14. 89, “μογεῖν ἄλγεα Od.21. 207, “εὕδειν ὕπνον Od.8. 445, or “ἀωτεῖν ὕπνον Od.10. 548, “ὅρκον ὀμνύναι Od.5. 178, “ζώειν βίον” (but with the addition “ἀγαθόν”) Od.15. 491, “ὑποστῆναι ὑπόσχεσιν Il.2. 286, “εἰλαπίνην δαίνυσθαι Il.23. 201(cp. “δαινύναι τάφον Od.3. 309, “γάμον Od.4. 3), “ὁδὸν ἐλθέμεναι Il.1. 151; Od.3. 316, “ὁδὸν οἴχεσθαι Od.3. 693.Cp. “ἀγγελίην ἐλθεῖν Il.11. 140, etc.

Analogous to this is the use of the accusative with a verb (though it has no relation to the meaning of the verb), as “πῦρ δεδορκώς Od.19. 446, “ὄσσεσθαι ὄλεθρον Od.2. 152, “πνεῖν μένος Od.22. 203, etc., “ἕλκος βάλλειν Il.5. 795, “οὐλὴν ἐλαύνειν Od.24. 332, “ὅρκια τάμνειν Od.24. 483, “ὀμνύναι ὕδωρ Il.14. 271.Cp. “πέπληγον χορόν Od.8. 264.See on the whole question La Roche, Hom. Stud. § 19 foll.

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