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[222] χάρμης, generally explained the battle-joy, and this is supported by 13.82χάρμηι γηθόσυνοι τήν σφιν θεὸς ἔμβαλε θυμῶι”. But it is very remarkable that Homer never represents his heroes as taking any delight in battle, except by immediate instigation of a god, as in the above passage, 2.453, 11.13. On the contrary, he lavishes all epithets of hatred upon war, “λυγρός, πολυδάκρυος, δυσηλεγής, δυσηχής, αἰνός”, etc., and in 5.891 (1.177) fondness for battle appears as a severe reproach. It seems, therefore, most unlikely that he should have made one of his commonest names for it out of a word which originally meant ‘joy,’ but which has entirely lost its connotation except in a single passage. Curtius would explain it as ‘the glow, burning flame’ of battle (root ghar), like “δαΐς” from “δαίω”: compare the expression “μάρναντο δέμας πυρὸς αἰθομένοιο”. We could then explain 13.82 as meaning ‘the glow, the fire, which the god had put in them.’ This, however, does not account for “χάρμη” = spear-point (Stesich. fr. 94, with “χαλκοχάρμας, σιδαροχάρμας” in Pindar, “ἄγχαρμον: ἀνωφερῆ τὴν αἰχμήν” Hesych.; see Schulze Q. E. p. 141). Hence Postgate's reference (A. J. P. iii. 337) to root ghar = prick, tear, is better; battle is called tearing of flesh and shields, and the phrase in 13.82 is due to confusion with the different root ghar = rejoice.

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