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χαλκός , Cret. καυχός GDI5011.4 (iii B. C.), :—
A.copper,χ. ἐρυθρόςIl.9.365; with reference to its polished surface, αἶθοψ, ἦνοψ, νῶροψ, φαεινός, 4.495, 16.408, 2.578, 12.151; “Τρῶες . . χαλκῷ μαρμαίροντες13.801; “πεδίον . . λάμπετο χαλκῷ20.156; “τῆλε δὲ χ. λάμφ᾽ ὥς τε στεροπή10.153, cf. 11.65, 19.363; “σάκος . . χαλκῷ παμφαῖνον14.11; and of the ornaments of a house, “χαλκοῦ τε στεροπήνOd.4.72; of copper as the first metal that men learnt to smelt and work, “τῶν δ᾽ ἦν χάλκεα μὲν τεύχεα, χάλκεοι δέ τε οἶκοι, χαλκῷ δ᾽ εἰργάζοντο, μέλας δ᾽ οὐκ ἔσκε σίδηροςHes.Op.151; χ. ἐρυθρός (cf. supr.) Hp.Ulc.17, Thphr.Lap.57, Callix.1; “χ. ἐρυθρὸς καὶ λευκόςThphr.Od.71; “χ. ΚύπριοςPosidon.52J., Dsc.1.102, cf. Polyaen.3.10.14; alloyed with tin to form bronze, the usual meaning of the word in Hom. (v. infr. 11) and freq. in later writers: “σίδηρος δὲ καὶ χ. πολέμων ὄργαναPl.Lg.956a, etc.; “χ. κεκραμένοςD.Chr.28.3.
II. in Poets freq. for anything made of metal, esp. of arms (hence Pi. calls it πολιός, the proper epith. of iron, P.3.48); of offensive arms, ὀξέϊ χαλκῷ, νηλέϊ χ., of a spear, a sword, Il.4.540, 3.292, al.; of a knife, 1.236, al.; of an axe, 13.180, Od.5.244, al.; of a fish-hook, Il.16.408; of defensive arms, as the plates laid on a shield, 20.275; χαλκὸν ζώννυσθαι, of a warrior girding on his armour, 23.130; “κεκορυθμένος, αἴθοπι χ.4.495; “ἐδύσετο νώροπα χ.2.578; of both combined, πλάγχθη δ᾽ ἀπὸ χαλκόφι χαλκός the spear of bronze glanced off the helm of bronze, 11.351.
2. of vessels, copper, cauldron, urn, 18.349, Od.8.426; of a cinerary urn, S.El.758; collectively of bronze plate, χ. μυρίος, Pi.N.10.45; “θάλαμον . . , ὅθι νητὸς χρυσὸς καὶ χ. ἔκειτοOd. 2.338, cf.13.19,21.10,62, Il.2.226; used in payment of ransom, 22.50, cf. 340, Od.5.38.
3. of a bronze mirror, A.Fr.393, Call.Lav.Pall.21, Ap6.210 (Philet.); used as a burning-glass, Thphr.Ign.73.
4. collectively, copper money, IPE12.24.15 (Olbia, iv B. C.), Ev.Matt. 10.9, Ev.Marc.12.41, cf. “ἰσόνομος11; generally, money, opp. κύαμοι, IG14.423 ii 21 (Tauromenium), cf. BGU822.12 (iii A. D.), etc.; χαλκοῦ σπάνις MenMon.156; “χαλκὸν ἔχων πῶς οὐδὲν ἔχεις μάθεAP 11.167 (Pollian.).
5. = χάλκωμα, bronze plate or tablet,τὰν προξενίαν γράψαντας εἰς χαλκὸν ἀνθέμενIG9(1).682 (Corcyra, iv B. C.); οὐετρανοὶ οἱ χωρὶς χαλκῶν, who have not received bronze copies of the privileges granted on discharge, BGU113.5 (ii A. D.), etc.
6. a weight, 1/8 obol, Gal.19.752.
III. χαλκοῦ ἄνθος, particles thrown off by copper when cooling, Hp.Mul.1.104, Ph.Bel.102.34, Dsc.5.77.
b. χαλκοῦ λεπίς, small pieces that scale off under the hammer, ib.78. (Perh. cf. Lith. geležìs 'iron'.)
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