A.ruler, commander, “νεός” Hdt.5.33: abs., A.Th.674, S.Aj.668, etc.; chief, king, “Ἀσίας” A.Pers.73; ἄ. τοῦ κόσμου τούτου, of Satan, Ev.Jo.16.11, al.
II. as official title, chief magistrate, esp. at Athens, Th.1.126, etc.; “οἱ ἐννέα ἄρχοντες” IG2.163; οἱ ἄ., at Sparta, the authorities, Hdt.6.106: sg., ὁ ἄρχων the eponymous magistrate of the year, IG1.52, al., Arist.Ath.3.3, etc.; so in Boeotia, at Delphi, Delos, and elsewhere, IG7.2407, SIG295.18, IG2.814, etc.; = Lat. consul, Plb.1.39.1.
2. governor of a dependency or province, e.g. in the Athenian Empire, IG1.62b19, etc.; of a Roman governor, OGI441.59; = praefectus, Plb.6.26.5.
3. generally, magistrate, official, Aeschin.3.29, etc.; opp. ἰδιώτης, SIG 672.16 (Delph.); ruler of a synagogue, Ev.Matt.9.18; president of a club, PLond.3.1178.6 (ii A. D.).