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εἰμί (
A.sum), Aeol. ἔμμι Sapph.2.15, Theoc.20.32; Cret. ἠμί GDI 4959a; 2sg. εἶ, Ep. and Ion. “εἰςOd.17.388, al., Aeol. ἔσσι, Ep. and Dor. “ἐσσίIl.1.176, Pi.O.6.90, Sophr.134; “ἐσίGDI4959a; 3sg. ἐστί, Dor. “ἐντίIG12(1).677 (Rhodes), Theoc.1.17, etc.; 3dual “ἐστόνTh.3.112; 1pl. ἐσμέν, Ep. and Ion. εἰμέν (also in Pi.P.3.60), “ἐμένCall.Fr. 294, Dor. “εἰμέςTheoc.15.73, but “ἠμένGDI5178.34; 3pl. εἰσί -ίν), Ep. and Ion. ἔασι -ιν) Il.7.73, Xenoph.8.1, Antim.29, Herod.4.84, Dor. “ἐντίPi.N.1.24, Theoc.11.45, IG9(1).32.22 (Phocis), etc.: imper. ἴσθι (“ἔσθιHecat.361 J.), Ep. and Lyr. also in Med. form “ἔσσοOd.3.200, Sapph.1.28, Maced.Pae.31, late Prose “ἔσοPlu.2.241d, M.Ant.3.5, Hld.5.12, Porph.Marc.34; 3sg. ἔστω (“ἤτωLXXPs.103.31, and late Inscrr., CIG2664, al.; but in Pl.R.361c leg. ἴτω), Dor. εἴτω, ἤτω, Heraclid. ap. Eust.1411.21, Elean “ἤστωSchwyzer 424; 3pl. ἔστωσαν, but “ἔστωνHom., Pl.R.502a, “ὄντωνId.Lg.879b, and early Att. Inscrr., IG12.22, etc. (ἔστωσαν first in ii B. C., ib.22.1328), Dor. ἐόντων ib.1126: subj. , ᾖς, , Ep. “ἔωOd.9.18; 3sg. “ἔῃIl.12.300,al. (also “ἔῃσι2.366, al., ᾖσιν) 19.202, Hes.Op.294), also Boeot. “ἔνθωIG7.3172.165, “μετείωIl.23.47 and perh. “εἴῃ9.245, etc.; Dor. 3pl. “ὦντιSIG940.3 (Crete), “ἔωντιGDI5040.14 (Hierapytna), Boeot. “ἴωνθιIG7.3171.46 (iii B. C.): opt. εἴην, -ης (“εἴησθαThgn.715), -η, also ἔοις, ἔοι, Il.9.284, 142, al., cf. Hdt.7.6; 3pl. “εἴοισαν Ἀρχ. Ἐφ.1911.133 (Gonni); 3dual “εἴτηνPl. Prm.149e, Sph.243e; 1pl. “εἶμενE.Alc.921 (lyr.), Pl.; 2pl. “εἶτεOd. 21.195; 3pl. “εἶενIl.2.372, etc., “εἴησανHdt.1.2, etc.; Elean ἔα, = εἴη, SIG9 (vi B. C.), and σύν-εαν, = συνεῖεν, GDI1149 (vi B. C.): inf. εἶναι, Arc.ἦναιSIG306.9 (Tegea, iv B. C.); Ep. ἔμμεναι (also Aeol. “ἔμμεν᾽Sapph.34), ἔμμεν (also Pi.P.6.42, S.Ant.623 (lyr.)), ἔμεναι, ἔμεν, also “ἔμεινSIG1166 (Dodona); Dor. εἶμεν Foed. ap. Th.5.77,79, IG7.1.7 (Megara), “ἦμενTest.Epict.5.16, Tab.Heracl.1.75, Cret. ἦμεν or “ἤμηνLeg.Gort.1.15, al., GDI4998i 2, al., Megar. “εἴμεναιAr.Ach. 775, “εἴμεινIG12(1).155.100 (Rhodes), 14.952 (Agrigentum); εἶν ib. 12(9).211.10 (Eretria), SIG135.4 (Olynthus), etc.: part. ὤν, Ep. ἐών, ἐοῦσα, ἐόν, Cypr.ἰώνInscr.Cypr.135.23 H.; Boeot. fem. “ἰῶσαIG 7.3172.116 (Orchom.), Aeol. and Dor. fem. “ἔσσαSapph.75.4, IG4.952.2 (Epid.), Theoc.28.16, “ἐοῖσαPi.P.4.265, “ἔασσαLyr.Alex.Adesp. 9, Diotog. ap. Stob.4.7.62, “εὖσαErinn.5.5 (also Ion., Herod.5.16, “εὔντων2.85), “ἐᾶσαTi.Locr.96d, IG5(1).1470.8 (Messene), “ἴατταLeg.Gort.8.47; acc. sg. “εὖνταTheoc.2.3; nom. sg. εἴς in Heraclid. ap. Eust.1756.13, pl. “ἔντεςTab.Heracl.1.117; dat. pl. ἔντασσι ib.104; gen. pl. “παρ-έντωνAlcm. 64: impf. “ἦνIl.2.77, etc., Ep. ἔον (also Aeol., Alc.127, Sapph.Oxy.1787 Fr.3 ii 21), in Att. (dub. in Aeol., Alc. Supp.14.9), Ar.Pl.77, Pl.Phd.61b, etc., but usu. altered to ἦν in codd. (and ἦν is required by metre in E.Ion280), contr. from Ep. and Ion. ἦα (Il.5.808, al., IG12(8).449.2 (Thasos), whence Hom.and later Ion. “ἔα_Il.4.321, al., “ἔαςHdt.1.187, “ἔατεId.4.119); Ep. 3sg. ἦεν, always with ν in Hom.; ἔην as 1sg., only Il.11.762 (s. v.l., al. ἔον), freq. as 3sg. (generally before a consonant, so that ἔεν is possible), sts. also ἤην; 2sg. ἦσθα, later ἦς (wh. is v.l. in Pi.I.1.26), sts. in LXX (Jd. 11.35, Ru.3.2,al.), cf. Pl.Ax.365e, Erinn.4.4, Ev.Matt.25.21, al., “ἦσθαςMen.Epit. 156, Ep. ἔησθα; 3sg. ἦν, Ep. ἔην, ἤην, ἦεν (v. supr.), Dor. and Aeol. “ἦςAlc.Supp.30.1, Epich.102, Sophr.59, Theoc.2.90, SIG241.145 (Delph.); 3dual “ἤστηνIl.5.10, E.Hipp.387, Ar.Eq.982, Pl.Euthd.272a, al.; Dor. 1pl. “ἦμεςPlu.Lyc.21; 2pl. “ἦτεPl.Euthd. 276c, “ἦστεAr.Pax821, Ec.1086; 3pl. ἦσαν, Ion. and Poet. ἔσαν (in Hes.Th.321,825, ἦν is not pl. for ἦσαν, but is rather a peculiarity of syntax, v. infr. v, but is 3pl. in Epich.46, al., SIG560.15 (Epidamnus, iii B. C.)); Aeol. “ἔονSchwyzer 644.12; later “ἤμηνPSI4.362.21 (iii B. C.), SIG527.46 (Crete, iii B. C.), IGRom.4.1740 (Cyme), always in LXX as Ba.1.19, cf. Ev.Matt.23.30, Plu.2.174a, etc., and sts. in codd. of earlier writers, Lys.7.34, Trag.Adesp.124 (cited from E. Hel.931 by Choerob. and from Id.Tr.474 by Aps.), X.Cyr.6.1.9, Hyp.Ath.26, 2sg. “ἦσοEpigr.Gr.379 (Aezani), 3sg. “ἦστοSupp.Epigr. 1.455.7 (Phrygia), 1pl. “ἤμεθαPPetr.2p.11 (iii B. C.), LXX Ba.1.19, 1 Ki.25.16, Ep.Eph.2.3; subj. “ὦμαιPBaden 48.12 (ii B. C.), ἦται GDI 1696, ἦνται prob. in IG5(1).1390.83 (Andania); Ion. and Ep. also ἔσκον, used by A.Pers.656 (lyr.): fut. ἔσομαι, ἔσται, Ep. and Aeol. also ἔσσομαι, ἔσεται, ἔσσεται; Aeol. 2sg. ἔσσῃ prob. in Alc.67,87; Dor. 2 and 3sg. ἐσσῇ, ἐσσεῖται, Il.2.393, 13.317, Theoc.10.5, 3pl. ἐσσοῦνται Foed. ap. Th.5.77 codd. (but “ἔσσονταιTab.Heracl.1.113), inf. “ἐσσεῖσθαιSophr.57.—All forms of the pres.ind. are enclitic (exc. 2sg. εἶ and 3pl. ἔασι); but 3sg. is written ἔστι when it begins a sentence or verse, or when it immediately follows οὐκ, καί, εἰ, ὡς, ἀλλά, or τοῦτ᾽, Hdn.Gr.1.553 (also μή acc. to EM301.3); later Gramm. wrote ἔστι as Subst. Verb, Phot., Eust.880.22.
A. as the Subst. Verb,
I. of persons, exist, “οὐκ ἔσθ᾽ οὗτος ἀνήρ, οὐδ᾽ ἔσσεταιOd.16.437; ἔτ᾽ εἰσί they are still in being, 15.433, cf. S.Ph.445, etc.; “τεθνηῶτος . . μηδ᾽ ἔτ᾽ ἐόντοςOd.1.289; οὐκέτ᾽ ἐστί he is no more, E.Hipp. 1162; οὐδὲ δὴν ἦν he was not long-lived, Il.6.131; οὐκ ὤν, οἱ οὐκ ὄντες, of those who are no more, Th.2.45,44; οἱ ὄντες the living, Plb.9.29.2; ὤν the Eternal, LXX Ex.3.14, al., Ph.1.289; “θεοὶ αἰὲν ἐόντεςIl.1.290; ἐσσόμενοι posterity, 2.119; “κἀγὼ γὰρ ποτ᾽, ἀλλὰ νῦν οὐκ εἴμ᾽ ἔτιE.Hec.284; ὡς ἂν εἶεν ἅνθρωποι might continue in being, Pl.Smp.190c; “ζώντων καὶ ὄντων ἈθηναίωνD.18.72, cf. Arist.GC318b25; of things, εἰ ἔστι ἀληθέως [ἡ τράπεζα] Hdt.3.17, etc.; of cities, “ὄλωλεν, οὐδ᾽ ἔτ᾽ ἐστὶ ΤροίαE.Tr.1292, cf. Heracl.491; δοκεῖ μοι Καρχηδόνα μὴ εἶναι censeo Carthaginem esse delendam, Plu.Cat.Ma.27; ἂν τὸ στράτευμα be in existence, D.8.17; of money, to be in hand, “τῶν ὄντων χρημάτων καὶ τῶν προσιόντωνIG12.91.25; τὰ ὄντα property, Pl.Grg. 511a, Plu.Ant.24, etc.; τὸ ἐσόμενον ἐκ . . future revenue from . . , BCH46.420 (Olymos, i B. C.); of place, τὴν οὖσαν ἐκκλησίαν the local church, Act.Ap.13.1; of time, τοῦ ὄντος μηνός in the current month, BGU146.4, etc.; in office, “ἱερέων τῶν ὄντωνPPar.5.4(ii B. C.); αἱ οὖσαι [ἐξουσίαι] the powers that be, Ep. Rom.13.1.
II. of the real world, be, opp. become, “γίγνεται πάντα δή φαμεν εἶναιPl.Tht. 152d, etc.; τὸ ὄν Being, Parm.8.35, Protag.2, Pl.Ti.27d, etc.; opp. τὸ μὴ ὄν, Gorg.Fr.3 D., etc.; “οὐδὲν γίνεται ἐκ τοῦ μὴ ὄντοςEpicur.Ep. 1p.5U.; “ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων ἐποίησεν αὐτὰ θεόςLXX 2 Ma.7.28; τὰ ὄντα the world of things, Heraclit.7, Emp.129.5, etc.; ὄνindecl., τῶν ὂν εἰδῶν species of Being, Plot.6.2.10.
2. of circumstances, events, etc., to happen, “τά τ᾽ ἐόντα, τά τ᾽ ἐσσόμενα, πρό τ᾽ ἐόνταIl.1.70; “ ἐσβολὴ ἔμελλεν ἔσεσθαιTh.2.13, etc.; τῆς προδοσίας οὔσης since treachery was there, Id.4.103; ἕως ἂν πόλεμος so long as it last, Id.1.58; “αἱ σπονδαὶ ἐνιαυτὸν ἔσονταιId.4.118; τί ἐστιν; what is it? what's the matter? Ar.Th.193; τί οὖν ἦν τοῦτο; how came it to pass? Pl.Phd.58a: repeated with a relat. to avoid a positive assertion, ἔστι δ᾽ ὅπῃ νῦν . things are as they are, i.e. are ill, A.Ag.67.
III. be the fact or the case, διπλασίαν ἂν τὴν δύναμιν εἰκάζεσθαι ἐστιν twice as large as it really is, Th.1.10; αὐτὸ ἐστι καλόν beauty in its essence, Pl.Smp. 211c, cf. Phd.74b; freq. in part., τὸν ἐόντα λόγον λέγειν or φαίνειν the true story, Hdt.1.95,116; τῷ ἐόντι χρήσασθαι tell the truth, ib. 30; “τὰ ὄντα ἀπαγγέλλεινTh.7.8; σκῆψιν οὐκ οὖσαν, λόγον οὐκ ὄντα, S.El.584, Ar.Ra.1052; τῷ ὄντι in reality, in fact, Pl.Prt.328d, etc.; to apply a quotation to a case in point, τῷ ὄντι κλαυσίγελως real 'smiles through tears' (with allusion to Il.6.484), X.HG7.2.9, cf. Pl. La.196d; κατὰ τὸ ἐόν according to the fact, rightly, Hdt.1.97; πᾶν τὸ ἐόν the whole truth, Id.9.11; “τοῦ ἐόντος ἀποτεύξεταιHp.VM 2.
IV. folld. by the relat., οὐκ ἔστιν ὅς or ὅστις no one, “οὐκ ἔσθ᾽ ὃς . . ἀπαλάλκοιIl.22.348; “οὐκ . οὐδεὶς ὅςE.El.903; οὐκ . ὅτῳ, = οὐδενί, A.Pr.293 (anap.), cf. 989: freq. in pl., εἰσὶν οἵ, = Lat. sunt qui, used exactly like ἔνιοι, Th.6.88, 7.44, Pl.Men.77d, Grg.503a, etc. (εἰσί τινες οἵ . . Th.3.24); ἐστὶν χωρία, πολίσματα, Id.1.12,65; “ἐστὶν εἰπεῖνId.2.67; “ἦσαν οἵX.An.5.2.14; the sg. Verb is used even with masc. and fem. pl., ἐστὶν οἵ, αἵ, Hp.Fract.1, VC4, X.Cyr.2.3.16; more freq. in oblique cases, “ποταμῶν ἐστὶ ὧνHdt.7.187; “ἐστὶν ἀφ᾽ ὧνTh.8.65; ἐστὶ παρ᾽ οἷς, ἐστὶν ἐν οἷς, Id.1.23, 5.25: in questions ὅστις is used, ἔστιν ἥντινα δόξαν . . ἀπεκρίνατο; Pl.Men.85b: with relat. Particles, ἐστὶν ἔνθα, = Lat. est ubi, X.Cyr.7.4.15, etc.; . ὅπῃ, ἔσθ᾽ ὅπου, somehow, somewhere, Pl.Prt.331d, A.Eu.517, S.OT448, etc.; in questions expecting a neg. answer, . ὁπόθεν, ὅπως; Pl.Phlb. 35a, R.493e, etc.; “οὐ γάρ ἐσθ᾽ ὅπωςPi.Fr.61, cf. Hdt.7.102, A.Ag. 620; οὐκ . ὅπως οὐ in any case, necessarily, Ar.Pax188; “οὐκ . ὡςPl. Men.76e, etc.; . ὅτε, ἔσθ᾽ ὅτε, sometimes, Pi.Fr.180.2, S.Aj.56, Th. 7.21, etc.
V. ἦν is sts. used with pl. masc. and fem., usu. at the beginning of a sentence, there was, “τῆς δ᾽ ἦν τρεῖς κεφαλαίHes.Th. 321; (but in “ἦν δ᾽ ἐρῳδιοί τε πολλοίEpich.46, cf. 59, al., it may be taken as Dor. 3pl.); “ἦν δ᾽ ἀμφίπλεκτοι κλίμακεςS.Tr.520 (lyr.); ἦν ἄρα κἀκεῖνοι ταλακάρδιοι Epigr. ap. Aeschin.3.184; less freq. “ἔστι, ἔστι δὲ μεταξὺ . . ἑπτὰ στάδιοιHdt.1.26, cf. 7.34; “ἔστι . . ἄρχοντές τε καὶ δῆμοςPl.R.463a; before dual Nouns, Ar.V.58, Pl.Grg.500d.
B. most freq., to be, the Copula connecting the predicate with the Subject, both being in the same case: hence, signify, import, “τὸ γὰρ εἴρειν λέγειν ἐστίνPl.Cra.398d; esp. in the phrase τοῦτ᾽ ἔστι, hoc est; “Σκαιόλαν, ὅπερ ἐστὶ ΛαϊόνPlu.Publ.17: with numerals, τὰ δὶς πέντε δέκα ἐστίν twice five are ten, X.Mem.4.4.7; εἶναί τις or τι, to be somebody, something, be of some consequence, v. τις; οὐδὲν εἶναι Pl.R.562d, etc.
C. εἶναι is freq. modified in sense by the addition of Advbs., or the cases of Nouns without or with Preps.:
I. εἶναι with Advbs., where the Adv. often merely represents a Noun and stands as the predicate, “ἅλις δέ οἱ ἦσαν ἄρουραιIl.14.122, etc.; ἀκέων, ἀκήν εἶναι, to be silent, 4.22, Od.2.82; “σῖγα πᾶς ἔστω λεώςE.Hec.532; “διαγνῶναι χαλεπῶς ἦν ἄνδρα ἕκαστονIl.7.424; ἀσφαλέως κομιδὴ ἔσται will go on safely, Hdt.4.134; ἐγγύς, πόρρω εἶναι, Th.6.88, Pl.Prt.356e: freq. impers. with words implying good or ill fortune, Κουρήτεσσι κακῶς ἦν it fared ill with them, Il.9.551; “εὖ γὰρ ἔσταιE.Med.89, cf. Ar.Pl.1188, etc.; “ἡδέως ἂν αὐτοῖς εἴηD.59.30.
b. to express the material of which a thing is made, κρηπίς ἐστι λίθων μεγάλων consists of . . , Hdt.1.93; τῆς πόλιος ἐούσης δύο φαρσέων ib.186; τοιούτων ἔργων ἐστὶ τυραννίς is made up of . . , Id.5.92.ή, etc.
c. to express the class to which a person or thing belongs, εἶ γὰρ τῶν φίλων you are one of them, Ar.Pl.345; “ἐτύγχανε βουλῆς ὤνTh.3.70; “ὅσοι ἦσαν τῶν προτέρων στρατιωτῶνId.7.44; “Κριτίας τῶν τριάκοντα ὤνX.Mem.1.2.31; ἔστι τῶν αἰσχρῶν it is in the class of disgraceful things, i. e. it is disgraceful, D.2.2.
d. to express that a thing belongs to another, “Τροίαν Ἀχαιῶν οὖσανA.Ag. 269; “τὸ πεδίον ἦν μέν κοτε ΧορασμίωνHdt.3.117, etc.: hence, to be of the party of, “ἦσαν . . τινὲς μὲν φιλίππου, τινὲς δὲ τοῦ βελτίστουD.9.56, cf. 37.53; to be de pendent upon, S.Ant.737, etc.; to be at the mercy of, “ἔστι τοῦ λέγοντος, ἢν φόβους λέγῃId.OT917.
e. to express one's duty, business, custom, nature, and the like , οὔτοι γυναικός ἐστι 'tis not a woman's part, A.Ag.940; “τὸ ἐπιτιμᾶν παντὸς εἶναιD.1.16; τὸ δὲ ναυτικὸν τέχνης ἐστίν is matter of art, requires art, Th.1.142, cf.83.
f. in LXX, to be occupied about, “ἦσαν τοῦ θύειν2 Ch.30.17; ἔσεσθαι, c. gen., to be about to, “ἐσόμεθα τοῦ σῶσαί σε2 Ki.10.11.
III. with the dat., ἐστί μοι I have, freq. in Hom., etc.
5. εἶναι ἐφ᾽ ἑαυτῆς to be by oneself, D.25.23; εἶναι ἐπὶ ὀνόματος to bear a name, Id.39.21; εἶναι ἐπὶ τοῖς πράγμασιν to be engaged in . . , Id.2.12; εἶναι ἐπί τινα to be against him, Id.6.33; εἶναι ἐφ᾽ ἑξήκοντα στάδια to reach sixty stadia, X.An.4.6.11; εἶναι ἐπὶ τὰς ἁφάς pass through the points of contact, Apollon. Perg.Con.4.1; εἶναι ἐπί τινι, v. supr. 3 b.
8. εἶναι ὑπό τινα or τινι to be subject to . . , X.HG5.2.17 (s.v.l.), 6.2.4.
9. περὶ τούτων ἐστίν that is the question, Men.Epit.30.
10. εἶναι ἀπό . . , in Geom., to be constructed upon, Archim.Sph.Cyl.2.9, Con.Sph.7.
D. ἐστί is very freq. omitted, mostly in the pres. ind. before certain predicates, as ἀνάγκη, ἄξιον, δυνατόν, εἰκός, ἕτοιμον, οἷόν τε, ῥᾴδιον, χρεών, etc., and after the neut. of Verbals in -τέος, and such forms as θαυμαστὸν ὅσον: less freq. with other persons and moods, εἰμί omitted, S.OT92, Aj.813; εἶ, Od.4.206; ἐσμέν, S.Ant.634; ἐστέ, Od.10.463; εἰσί, S.OT499 (lyr.), IG2.778 B; subj. , Il.14.376, E.Hipp.659, Antipho 5.32; opt. εἴη, IG22.1183.12; impf. ἦν, ib.2.778 B; fut. ἔσονται, Od.14.394.
E. the Inf. freq. seems redundant,
F. impf. ἦνissts. used where other languages take the pres.,
1. after ἄρα, to express a fact which is and has always been the same, δέρμα δὲ ἀνθρώπου . . ἦν ἄρα σχεδὸν δερμάτων πάντων λαμπρότατον human skin then it appears is . . , Hdt.4.64; “Κύπρις οὐκ ἄρ᾽ ἦν θεόςE. Hipp.359; ὡς ἄρ᾽ ἦσθ᾽ ἐμὸς πατὴρ ὀρθῶς ib.1169; “ πολύμοχθον ἄρ᾽ ἦν γένος . . ἁμερίωνId.IA1330; “ στωμύλος ἦσθαTheoc.5.79; so also when there is reference to a past thought, τουτὶ τί ἦν; what is this? Ar.Ach.157, cf. Pl.Cra.387c: so in the Aristotelian formula τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι (APo.82b38, al.), used to express the essential nature of a thing, where τί ἦν (for ἐστί) takes the place of the dat. in such phrases as τὸ ἀγαθῷ εἶναι, τὸ μεγέθει εἶναι, APr.67b12, de An.429b10.
G. ἐγώ εἰμι, in LXX, pleonastic for “ἐγώ, ἐγώ εἰμι οὐχ ἥμαρτονJd. 11.27, cf. 6.18; also “ἔσται πᾶς ἀποκτενεῖ μεGe.4.14.
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    • Demosthenes, On the Crown, 283
    • Demosthenes, On the Crown, 72
    • Demosthenes, Against Aristogiton 1, 23
    • Demosthenes, Against Aphobus, 36
    • Demosthenes, Against Pantaenetus, 53
    • Demosthenes, Against Boeotus 1, 21
    • Demosthenes, Against Neaera, 30
    • Euripides, Alcestis, 921
    • Euripides, Electra, 903
    • Euripides, Hecuba, 1179
    • Euripides, Hecuba, 284
    • Euripides, Hecuba, 532
    • Euripides, Helen, 931
    • Euripides, Heracles, 313
    • Euripides, Heraclidae, 491
    • Euripides, Hippolytus, 1162
    • Euripides, Hippolytus, 359
    • Euripides, Hippolytus, 387
    • Euripides, Hippolytus, 1169
    • Euripides, Hippolytus, 659
    • Euripides, Iphigeneia in Aulis, 1330
    • Euripides, Ion, 280
    • Euripides, Medea, 89
    • Euripides, Trojan Women, 1292
    • Herodotus, Histories, 1.95
    • Herodotus, Histories, 3.117
    • Herodotus, Histories, 3.18
    • Herodotus, Histories, 4.134
    • Herodotus, Histories, 5.84
    • Herodotus, Histories, 5.92
    • Herodotus, Histories, 7.102
    • Herodotus, Histories, 1.171
    • Herodotus, Histories, 1.187
    • Herodotus, Histories, 1.2
    • Herodotus, Histories, 1.22
    • Herodotus, Histories, 1.26
    • Herodotus, Histories, 1.57
    • Herodotus, Histories, 1.93
    • Herodotus, Histories, 1.97
    • Herodotus, Histories, 3.17
    • Herodotus, Histories, 3.49
    • Herodotus, Histories, 3.71
    • Herodotus, Histories, 4.119
    • Herodotus, Histories, 4.64
    • Herodotus, Histories, 5.33
    • Herodotus, Histories, 6.109
    • Herodotus, Histories, 7.187
    • Herodotus, Histories, 7.34
    • Herodotus, Histories, 7.6
    • Herodotus, Histories, 8.134
    • Herodotus, Histories, 9.11
    • Hesiod, Theogony, 321
    • Hesiod, Theogony, 825
    • Hesiod, Works and Days, 294
    • Homer, Iliad, 12.300
    • Homer, Iliad, 14.122
    • Homer, Iliad, 14.376
    • Homer, Iliad, 19.202
    • Homer, Iliad, 1.290
    • Homer, Iliad, 20.246
    • Homer, Iliad, 21.109
    • Homer, Iliad, 21.154
    • Homer, Iliad, 22.348
    • Homer, Iliad, 23.47
    • Homer, Iliad, 2.119
    • Homer, Iliad, 2.372
    • Homer, Iliad, 2.77
    • Homer, Iliad, 4.211
    • Homer, Iliad, 4.22
    • Homer, Iliad, 4.321
    • Homer, Iliad, 5.808
    • Homer, Iliad, 6.131
    • Homer, Iliad, 6.267
    • Homer, Iliad, 6.484
    • Homer, Iliad, 7.424
    • Homer, Iliad, 7.73
    • Homer, Iliad, 9.245
    • Homer, Iliad, 24.397
    • Homer, Iliad, 2.393
    • Homer, Odyssey, 10.463
    • Homer, Odyssey, 15.392
    • Homer, Odyssey, 15.433
    • Homer, Odyssey, 17.388
    • Homer, Odyssey, 1.289
    • Homer, Odyssey, 21.195
    • Homer, Odyssey, 3.200
    • Homer, Odyssey, 4.193
    • Homer, Odyssey, 4.611
    • Homer, Odyssey, 14.394
    • Homer, Odyssey, 2.82
    • Homer, Odyssey, 4.206
    • Isaeus, Menecles, 32
    • Isocrates, Panegyricus, 12
    • Lysias, Against Agoratus, 58
    • Lysias, On the Olive Stump, 34
    • New Testament, Ephesians, 2.3
    • Old Testament, Genesis, 4.14
    • Old Testament, 1 Samuel, 25.16
    • Old Testament, 2 Chronicles, 30.17
    • New Testament, Matthew, 23.30
    • New Testament, Matthew, 25.21
    • Old Testament, Ruth, 3.2
    • Plato, Laws, 879b
    • Plato, Republic, 361c
    • Plato, Republic, 463a
    • Plato, Republic, 493e
    • Plato, Republic, 502a
    • Plato, Republic, 562d
    • Plato, Phaedo, 58a
    • Plato, Phaedo, 59a
    • Plato, Phaedo, 61b
    • Plato, Phaedo, 74b
    • Plato, Phaedo, 84c
    • Plato, Cratylus, 387c
    • Plato, Cratylus, 396e
    • Plato, Cratylus, 398d
    • Plato, Sophist, 243e
    • Plato, Sophist, 256d
    • Plato, Statesman, 271e
    • Plato, Statesman, 300c
    • Plato, Theaetetus, 152d
    • Plato, Symposium, 211c
    • Plato, Parmenides, 149e
    • Plato, Philebus, 12d
    • Plato, Philebus, 35a
    • Plato, Symposium, 190c
    • Plato, Laches, 187c
    • Plato, Laches, 196d
    • Plato, Laches, 201c
    • Plato, Lysis, 204b
    • Plato, Euthydemus, 272a
    • Plato, Euthydemus, 276c
    • Plato, Gorgias, 511a
    • Plato, Meno, 76e
    • Plato, Meno, 77d
    • Plato, Protagoras, 311e
    • Plato, Protagoras, 317a
    • Plato, Protagoras, 331d
    • Plato, Protagoras, 356e
    • Plato, Gorgias, 500d
    • Plato, Gorgias, 503a
    • Plato, Meno, 85b
    • Plato, Protagoras, 328d
    • Plato, Timaeus, 27d
    • Sophocles, Ajax, 1299
    • Sophocles, Ajax, 813
    • Sophocles, Ajax, 1330
    • Sophocles, Ajax, 56
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 737
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 623
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 634
    • Sophocles, Electra, 197
    • Sophocles, Electra, 584
    • Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 1356
    • Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 274
    • Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 562
    • Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 917
    • Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 92
    • Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 1146
    • Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 314
    • Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 448
    • Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 499
    • Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 708
    • Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 90
    • Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 991
    • Sophocles, Philoctetes, 1003
    • Sophocles, Philoctetes, 445
    • Sophocles, Philoctetes, 656
    • Sophocles, Philoctetes, 963
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.10
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.130
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.142
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.23
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.73
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.45
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.71
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.112
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.70
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.10
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.28
    • Thucydides, Histories, 5.25
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.46
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.8
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.48
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.65
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.12
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.58
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.13
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.67
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.24
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.68
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.103
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.118
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.44
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 5.2.14
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.2.11
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.6.9
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.2.13
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.5.7
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 4.6.11
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 7.3.19
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 7.6.36
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 1.6.2
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 6.1.9
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 6.2.15
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 7.4.15
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 1.6.25
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 2.3.16
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 3.5.9
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 5.2.17
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 6.2.4
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 7.2.9
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.6.9
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.2.31
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 4.4.7
    • Homer, Iliad, 11.20
    • Homer, Iliad, 11.762
    • Homer, Iliad, 13.317
    • Homer, Iliad, 14.108
    • Homer, Iliad, 1.176
    • Homer, Iliad, 1.70
    • Homer, Iliad, 2.366
    • Homer, Iliad, 5.10
    • Homer, Iliad, 5.873
    • Homer, Iliad, 9.284
    • Homer, Iliad, 9.551
    • Homer, Odyssey, 16.437
    • Homer, Odyssey, 9.18
    • Sophocles, Trachiniae, 520
    • Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 1179
    • Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 269
    • Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 620
    • Polybius, Histories, 1.26.3
    • Polybius, Histories, 9.29.2
    • Aristophanes, Acharnians, 157
    • Aristophanes, Acharnians, 775
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.99
    • Thucydides, Histories, 5.77
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.88
    • Hippocrates, De fracturis, 1
    • Hippocrates, De prisca medicina, 2
    • Hippocrates, De capitis vulneribus, 4
    • Old Testament, 2 Maccabees, 7.28
    • Old Testament, 2 Samuel, 10.11
    • New Testament, Acts, 13.1
    • Old Testament, Baruch, 1.19
    • Old Testament, Exodus, 3.14
    • Old Testament, Psalm, 103.31
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.34
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.21
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.35
    • Plutarch, Antonius, 24
    • Plutarch, Marcus Cato, 27
    • Plutarch, Publicola, 17
    • Plutarch, Lycurgus, 21
    • Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Antiquitates Romanae, 1.70
    • Dionysius of Halicarnassus, De Compositione Verborum, 25
    • Philostratus the Athenian, Life of Apollonius of Tyana, 5.31
    • Marcus Aurelius, M. Antonius Imperator Ad Se Ipsum, 3.5
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