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γράμμα , ατος, τό, Dor. γράθμα , prob. in IG4.506 (Heraeum, vi/v B. C.), cf. An.Ox.1.102, but γράσσμα , IG4.554 (Argos, v B. C.): late Aeol. pl. γρόππατα , Epigr.Gr.990.11 (Balbilla): (γράφω):—
A.that which is drawn: pl., lines of a drawing, picture, etc., E.Ion1146 (of tapestry), Theoc.15.81; picture, “Ἀπέλλεω γ.Herod.4.73, cf. AP 6.352 (Erinna): sg., drawing, picture, Pl.R.472d, Cra.430e, cf. 431c: pl., figures in a picture, Procop.Gaz.Ecphr.p.157B.
II. written character, letter, Hdt.1.139, 148, etc.: in pl., letters, characters, “γραμμάτων τε συνθέσειςA.Pr.460; “πηλίκοις γ.Ep.Gal.6.11; the letters, the alphabet, Hdt.5.58; “τὰ γ. καὶ τὰς συλλαβάςPl.Cra.390e; “γ. ΦοινίκιαS.Fr.514; Ἀσσύρια, Ἑλληνικά, Hdt.4.87; “γράμματα ἐπίστασθαιPl.Lg.689d; μαθεῖν to have learnt to read, Id.Prt. 325e; “γ. μὴ εἰδέναιSIG2844.6; ἐδίδασκες γράμματα, ἐγὼ δ᾽ ἐφοίτων you kept school—I went there, D.18.265; “ἤτοι τέθνηκεν διδάσκει γ.Com.Adesp.20; “παιδεύειν γράμματαArist.Pol.1337b24; τέχνη ἡμῶν γ. our profession is that of the scribe, PTeb.316.16 (i A. D.).
b. articulate sound, letter, Pl.Phlb.18c; “τὰ γ. πάθη ἐστὶ τῆς φωνῆςArist.Pr.895a12; γράμματα φθέγγεσθαι ib.8, cf. PA660a5.
c. παρὰ γράμμα λέγοντα . . σκοπεῖν etymologically, Id.MM1185b39; τὰ παρὰ γ. σκώμματα puns, Id.Rh.1412a28; but ἀρετὴν παρὰ γ. διώκοντες, with ref. to Νικαρέτη, the mistress of Stilpo, Crates Theb.1.
d. inscription, “τὸ Δελφικὸν γ.Pl.Phdr.229e, cf. Chrm.164d, X.Mem.4.2.24, etc., IG 2.2876, al.: prov., “εἰς πέλαγος . . γράμματα γράψαιEpigr.Gr.1038.8 (Attalia).
2. in pl., notes in music, AP11.78 (Lucill.).
3. mathematical diagram, Epigr. ap. D.L.8.12.
4. letter inscribed on the lots which the δικασταί drew, Ar.Pl.277, al., Arist.Ath.64.4; practically, = division of dicasts, “ἐν ὁποίῳ γ. δειπνεῖAr.Ec.683; κατὰ γράμμα φυλακά the roster of guards, SIG569.21 (Cos, iii B. C.).
b. quarters of a town, PRein.49.2; accent, EM240.42, Zonar.
5. a small weight, 1/24 ounce, scruple, Androm. ap. Gal.13.114, Gp.7.13.2, PLips.62 ii 27 (iv A. D.).
III. in pl., set of written characters, piece of writing, Hdt.1.124: hence, letter, Id.5.14, IG22.103.8, etc.; “γραμμάτων πτυχαίS.Fr.144, cf. E.IT594, al., Pl.Ep.347c; inscription, epitaph, etc., “ἐκόλαψε ἐς τὸν τάφον γράμματα λέγοντα τάδεHdt. 1.187, cf. 4.91, And.3.12, Theoc.18.47, IG3.751.
2. papers, documents, Antipho 1.30, D.36.21, etc. (sg., D.Chr.65.14); τούτων τὰ γ. the documents to prove this, Lys.32.14; “τὰ γ. τῆς δίκηςAr.Nu.772; τὰ δημόσια γ. the public records, Decr. ap. D.18.55; title-deeds, D.C.65.14; account of loans, D.49.59; “ἐπικαρπίαν ἐν γράμμασιν ἀποφέρεινPl. Lg.955d; contract or estimate, BCH46.323 (Teos); catalogue, X.Cyr.7.4.12: in sg., bond, Ev. Luc.16.7; note of hand, J.AJ18.6.3.
3. a man's writings, i.e. book, treatise, “τὰ τοῦ Ζήνωνος γ.Pl.Prm.127c (but sg., ib.128a): pl., books, X.Mem.4.2.1; “Πλάτωνος τὸ περὶ ψυχῆς γ.Call.Epigr.25, cf. AP9.63 (Asclep.), Gal.18(2).928; τὰ ἱερὰ γ. the Holy Scriptures, OGI56.36 (iii B. C.), Ph.2.574, 2 Ep.Ti.3.15, J.Ap.1.10; ἱερὰ γ., = Imperial rescripts, IG12(5).132 (Paros, iii A. D.); = hieroglyphics, OGI90.54 (Rosetta, ii B. C.): in sg., the Law of Moses, Ep.Rom.2.27, al.; opp. πνεῦμα, ib.29: sg., article of a treaty, Th. 5.29.
IV. in pl., also, letters, learning, “ἀπείρους γραμμάτωνPl.Ap.26d, etc.
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  • Cross-references in general dictionaries from this page (52):
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    • Lysias, Against Diogeiton, 14
    • New Testament, 2 Timothy, 3.15
    • Plato, Laws, 689d
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    • Plato, Statesman, 299d
    • Plato, Parmenides, 127c
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    • New Testament, Galatians, 6.11
    • Dio Chrysostom, Orationes, 65.14
    • Cassius Dio, Historia Romana, 65.14
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