A.v.l. λαόν, which is in all Mss. in 4.148), cj. in Mimn.14.9; Att. λεώς , which is also used in Hdt.1.22, 8.136, while the form λαός is sts. used in Trag., and once or twice even in Com. (v. infr. 1.3): also in Inscrr. and Pap. (v. infr.) and in late Prose, as Foed.Byz. ap. Plb.4.52.7 (pl.), Str.14.4.3 (pl.), Plu.2.1096b, etc. (both forms in pr. nn., “Λεωβώτης” Hdt.7.204, “Λαβώτας” X.HG1.2.18, etc.).
1. in Il., λαός （λαοί) usu. means men, i.e. soldiers, both of the whole army and smaller divisions, “κριτὸς ἔγρετο λ. Ἀχαιῶν” 7.434; “λαὸν ἀγείρειν” 16.129; “πολὺν ὤλεσα λαόν” 2.115: pl., ἅμα τῷ γε . . ἄριστοι λ. ἕποντ' ib.578; “στίχες ἀσπιστάων λ.” 4.91; periphr., στρατὸς λαῶν ib.76; “λαῶν ἔθνος” 13.495; mostly including both foot and horse, as 2.809; but sts. λαός denotes foot, as opp. horse, 7.342; also, a land army, opp. a fleet, 4.76, 9.424, 10.14; also, the common men, opp. their leaders, 2.365, 13.108; but
2. in Od., λαοί, more rarely λαός, almost always means men or people; as subjects of a prince, e.g. 3.214, 305, al. (λαοί is sts. so used in Il., e.g. 17.226, 24.611; λαοὶ ἀγροιῶται country-folk, 11.676; work-people, 17.390); of sailors, Od.14.248; so after Hom., ναυτικὸς λεώς seafaring folk, A.Pers.383; “πᾶς ὁ χειρῶναξ λεώς” S.Fr.844; “ὁ γεωργικὸς λεώς” Ar.Pax920 (lyr.): in sg., slave, τὸν Εὐρυσθέως λεών, of Heracles, Hecat.23 J.; and so perh. “λεὼς αὔτοικος” GDI5533e (Zeleia): more generally, μέροπες λαοί, i.e. mankind, A.Supp.90 (lyr.); λ. ἐγχώριοι the natives, ib. 517, cf. Od.6.194; esp. in Egypt, of the fellahin, PRev.Laws42.11-16 (iii B. C.), PSI4.380.5 (iii B. C.), etc.; civil population, opp. priests and soldiers, OGI90.12 (Rosetta, ii B. C.), cf. 225.8 (Milet., iii B. C.), al.
3. people assembled, as in the theatre, “ὁ πολὺς λαῶν ὄχλος” Ar.Ra.676, cf. 219 (both lyr.); esp. in the Ecclesia, “αἱ στίχες τῶν λαῶν” Id.Eq.163: hence the phrase ἀκούετε λεῴ hear O people!—the usual way of beginning proclamations at Athens, like our Oyez! Sus.1.1, Ar.Pax551, Av.448; τιμῶσιν οἱ πάντες λεῴ ib. 1275; “δεῦρ᾽ ἴτε, πάντες λεῴ” Arist.Fr.384; “Ἀττικὸς λεώς” A.Eu.681; ὁ πολὺς λεώς the multitude, Pl.R.458d, etc.
4. in LXX, of the people, as opp. priests and Levites, 1 Es.5.46; in NT, of Jews, opp. Gentiles, Ev.Matt.2.6, Ev.Luc.2.10, al., cf. SIG1247 (Jewish tombstones); of Christians, opp. heathen, Act.Ap.15.14, al.
II. a people, i.e. all who are called by one name, first in Pi., “Δωριεῖ λαῷ” O.8.30; “Λυδῶν δὲ λαὸς καὶ Φρυγῶν” A.Pers.770; “ξύμπας Ἀχαιῶν λαός” S.Ph.1243, cf. OT144, etc.; ἱππόται λαοί, i.e. the Thessalians, Pi. P.4.153, cf. 9.54, N.1.17. (The resemblance between λαός people and λᾶος stone (cf. λᾶας) is implied in Il.24.611 λαοὺς δὲ λίθους ποίησε Κρονίων (in the story of Niobe); and so Pi. explains the word from the legend of Deucalion, O.9.46, cf. Epich.122, Apollod.1.7.2; but cf. Philoch.12.) (From λα_ϝ-, as shown by the pr.names “Λαϝοπτόλεμος” GDI3151, ϝιόλαϝος ib.3132 (Corinth): hence prob. λήϊτον.)