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πον-έω , πονέομαι ,
A. in early Greek only Med. πονέομαι, inf. “-έεσθαιIl.10.116: impf. ἐπονεῖτο, Ep. “πονεῖτο9.12: fut. “πονήσομαι23.159, Hp.Mul.1.4, later “πονέσομαιLuc.Asin.9: aor. ἐπονησάμην, Ep. “πονήσατοIl.9.348, (δια-) Pl.Lg.966c, X.Eq.5.10; ἐπονήθην f.l. in E.Hel.1509 (lyr.), (δια-) Isoc.15.267: pf. πεπόνημαι, Ion.3pl.—“-έαταιHdt.2.63, Ep.“-ήαταιArat.82, Att. “-ηνταιPl.Phlb.58e: plpf. “πεπόνητοIl.15.447, Ep.3pl. “-ήατοA.R.2.263:
I. abs., work hard,ὡς ἐπονεῖτοIl.2.409; ὄφελεν πονέεσθαι λισσόμενος he ought to suffer toil in praying, 10.117; ὅπλα . . , τοῖς ἐπονεῖτο with which he did his work, of Hephaestus, 18.413, cf. Od.16.13; περὶ δόρπα . . πονέοντο were busied about their supper, Il.24.444, cf. Hdt.2.63, Pl.Phlb.58e; so πεπόνητο καθ᾽ ἵππους was busy with the horses, of a charioteer, Il.15.447; πονέοντο κατὰ κρατερὴν ὑσμίνην were toiling in the fight, 5.84, etc.; hence πονεῖσθαι alone = μάχεσθαι, 4.374, 13.288; π. τινός to be busy with . . , Arat.82, cf. 758.
2. suffer from illness, be sick, Th.2.51.
B. after Hom., the act. form πονέω prevails: fut. “πονήσωA.Pr. 344, Pl.R.410b, Hp.Mul.1.2,5; later “πονέσωArist.Mech.856b9, Lyr. Alex.Adesp.37.3, LXXIs.19.10, al., and in codd. of Hp.Aph.4.32: aor. ἐπόνησα, Dor. -α_σα, E.Hipp.1369 (anap.), Pl.R.462d, Hp.Acut.46, Theoc.15.80; poet. “πόνησαPi.N.7.36; later “ἐπόνεσαLXX 1 Ki.23.21, al., Ph.Bel.58.1, al., Polyaen.3.10.6, etc., and in codd. of Hp.Coac. 489, Morb.1.4,14: pf. “πεπόνηκαAr.Pax820, X.Cyr.4.5.22, Hp.Vict. 2.66; later “πεπόνεκαPMich.Zen.104.3 (iii B.C.): plpf. “ἐπεπονήκειTh. 7.38:—Pass., aor. ἐπονήθην ἐξ-) Id.6.31; Dor. subj. “πονα_θῇPi.O.6.11: pf. “πεπόνημαιS.Tr.985 (anap.), Pl.Phdr.232a (v. infr. 1.3):
I. intr., toil, labour,περὶ λήϊονHdt.2.14; “ἐς ἄκαιρα πονεῖνThgn.919; πόνει μετ᾽ εὐκλείας Anon ap.Stob.3.1.173 = JHS27.63 (Cyzicus, iv/iii B.C.); ἄλλως, μάτην π., labour in vain, S.OT1151, E.HF501: c.acc., τὰ μηδὲν ὠφελοῦντα μὴ πόνει μάτην do not labour at . . , A.Pr.44; “ἀνήνυτα π.Pl. R.531a: rarely of things, “τίς . . αἶνος ἐπ᾽ ἀνδρὶ θείῳ . . πονήσει;A.Ag. 1550 (lyr., dub., leg. αἶνον).
2. c. acc. cogn., π. πόνον go through, suffer toil, Id.Pers.682, E.Hec.779, cf. S.Ph.1419, E.Hipp.1369 (anap.), Pl.R.410b, etc.; “περὶ τῶν παθημάτων ὧν νοσέουσί τε καὶ πονέουσιHp. VM2, etc.; “ἅμιλλαν ποδοῖνE.IA212 (lyr.); “π. πολλάId.Supp.577: with modal words, π. τινί suffer in or by a thing, Pi.N.7.36; “δίψῃA. Pers.484; “ὑπὸ χειμῶνοςAntipho 2.2.1; “τῇ κυήσειArist.HA570b3; εἰρεσίᾳ Polyaen.l.c.: c.acc. partis, πεπόνηκα . . τὼ σκέλει mylegs ache, Ar.Pax820; π. τὰς κεφαλάς, τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς, τὰ γόνατα, have a pain in . . , Arist.HA557a10, Pr.959b21, 882b25: with modal dat. added, “π. πλευρὰν πικρᾷ γλωχῖνιS.Tr.681: abs., labour under sickness, suffer, Hp.VM8; suffer damage,ἅπαν ἂν συμπαθὲς ἦν ἑνὸς μορίου πονήσαντοςArist.PA690b4; also, suffer pain, ἀεὶ π. τὸ ζῷον Anaxag.ap eund.EN 1154b7; of an army, to be hard-pressed, suffer, Th.5.73, X.Cyr.1.4.21, etc.; of ships, Th.7.38; of implements, arms, etc., to be worn out, spoilt, or damaged, D.18.194, Plb.3.49.11, Inscr.Délos442 B204, al. (ii B.C.); “τὰ σπαρτία ἧττον πονέσειArist.Mech.l.c.; “ῥίζαι πεπονηκυῖαιThphr.HP3.7.1; of buildings, to be dilapidated, PEnteux.6.3 (iii B.C.), etc.
II. trans.,
1. c.acc. pers., afflict, distress, Pi.P. 4.151, cj. in Anacreont.33.14:—Pass., to be afflicted or worn out, suffer greatly,πεπονημένος ὀδύναιςS.Tr.985 (anap.); “πόλεως πονουμένης τῷ πολέμῳTh.4.59; “τόν τε θνῄσκοντα καὶ τὸν πονούμενονId.2.51.
2. c. acc. rei, gain by toil or labour, [χρήματα] X.An.7.6.41:—Pass., to be won or achieved by toil,καλὸν εἴ τι ποναθῇPi.O.6.11, cf. P.9.93.
b. Pass., of meats, to be dressed, cooked, Ptol.Euerg.9J., Phld.Mort.24; “ἄρτος πεπονημένοςspecially prepared, Sor.1.94.—The rule of Choerob. in Theod.2.137 H., EM130.3, that when πονέω means toil, the fut. and aor. are πονήσω, ἐπόνησα, when suffer pain, πονέσω, ἐπόνεσα, is not borne out by the examples (v. supr.).—The fut. Med. κατα-πονήσομαι is used as trans. by D.S.11.15; so aor. Pass. πονήθη in IG9(1).867.6 (Corc., vii/vi B.C.); and the intr. and trans. senses are united in Anacreont. 33.14 (cj.), 15.
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  • Cross-references in general dictionaries from this page (62):
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    • Plato, Laws, 966c
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    • Hippocrates, Aphorismi, 4.32
    • Old Testament, 1 Samuel, 23.21
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.59
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.31
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