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πυθμήν , ένος, ,
A.bottom, of a cup or jar, “δειλὴ δ᾽ ἐνὶ πυθμένι φειδώHes.Op.369 (so prov. “ἐν τῷ πυθμένι τοῦ πίθουLib.Ep.127.2); “τὼ δὲ πίθω πατάγεσκ᾽ πύθμηνAlc.Supp.25.9, cf. Arist.Pr.936a32, Sor.1.91; distd. from πύνδαξ, Arist.Pr.938a14; “φιάλη . . ἐπὶ τὸν π. καὶ τὸ στόμα τιθεμένηAsclep.Myrl. ap. Ath.11.501d, cf. Apollod. ib. a; this sense is doubtful in Il.11.635 (cf. infr. 4 and Ath.11.488f), and in IG12.282.111, 11(2).161 B 120, 287 B 89,131,143 (Delos, iii B.C.); “ἐν τῷ π. ἐπιγραφὴν ἔχουσαInscr.Délos 313a102, cf. 320 B 45, al. (iii B.C.).
2. generally, base, foundation, “χθόνα ἐκ πυθμένων κραδαίνεινA.Pr.1046 (anap.); π. γαίης, πέτρης, Orph.A.92, L.162; foot of a mountain, Arat.989.
3. of the sea, bottom, depth, π. θαλάσσης, πόντου, λίμνης, Hes.Th.932, Sol.13.20, Thgn.1035; “τοῦ πελάγουςPl.Phd.109c, cf. 112b; also Ταρτάρου, abyss, Pi.Fr.207.
4. support under a cup's handle, “δύω δ᾽ ὑπὸ πυθμένες ἦσανIl.11.635 (cf. supr. 1); legs of a tripod, 18.375.
6. in Anatomy, fundus of univalves, Arist.HA529a6, PA680a23; lower parts of the testes, Ruf.Onom. 105 (but, upper part of the uterus, Sor.1.7, Gal.2.889); also γενειάδος π. A.Fr.27; distal end of a quince, Aët.1.111.
7. metaph., Δίκας ἐρείδεται π. the base of Justice is firmly set, A.Ch.646 (lyr.); “π. κακῶνOrph.A.893; πυθμένες λόγων fundamental principles, Protag. ap. D.L.9.54; “Ζεὺς π. γαίης τε καὶ οὐρανοῦOrph.Fr.168.4.
II. stock, root of a tree, “παρὰ πυθμέν᾽ ἐλαίηςOd.13.122,372, cf. 23.204; “ἐν π. φηγοῦHes.Fr.134.8; π. δρυός Ion Trag.28; “ π. τῆς ῥίζηςDsc. 4.104, cf. 3.126; σεύτλου πυθμένες beet-roots, BGU1118.17 (i B.C.); ἁλικακκάβων π. ib. 1120.37 (i B.C.); “ἀμπέλουStr.2.1.14, cf. PPetr.1p.78 (iii B.C.); ἐπὶ τοῦ αὐτοῦ π. Thphr.HP2.2.9, cf. CP3.13.3: metaph., “ἐκ νεάτου π. ἐς κορυφήνSol.13.10.
2. stem, stalk, πυροῦ, κριθῶν, Arist.GA728b36, D.S.1.14; “σύκωνPoll.2.170; “τυτθὸν . . ἐν χθονὶ πυθμένα τείνειNic.Th.639.
b. metaph., stem, stock of a family, A.Ch.260, Supp.106 (lyr.); σμικροῦ γένοιτ᾽ ἂν σπέρματος μέγας π., i.e. great things might come from small, Id.Ch.204; “πυθμένες θάλλουσιν ἐσθλῶνB.5.198; π. δικῶν, of a litigious person, Com.Adesp. 896.
III. in Arithmetic, base of a series, i.e. lowest number possessing a given property, π. δέκα (of the numbers such that the previous integers contain an equal number of primes and non-primes) Speus. ap. Theol.Ar.62; ἐπίτριτος π. the first couple of numbers giving the ratio 4:3, Pl.R.546c, cf. Nicom.Ar.1.21, 2.19. [υ^ in A. ll. cc.; υ_ by position in Ep., etc.] (Cf. Skt. budhnás 'bottom, base', Lat. fundus, OE. botm.
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hide References (20 total)
  • Cross-references in general dictionaries from this page (20):
    • Aeschylus, Libation Bearers, 204
    • Aeschylus, Libation Bearers, 646
    • Aeschylus, Libation Bearers, 260
    • Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound, 1046
    • Aeschylus, Suppliant Maidens, 106
    • Bacchylides, Epinicians, 5.198
    • Hesiod, Theogony, 932
    • Hesiod, Works and Days, 369
    • Homer, Iliad, 11.635
    • Homer, Iliad, 18.375
    • Homer, Odyssey, 23.204
    • Homer, Odyssey, 13.122
    • Plato, Republic, 546c
    • Plato, Phaedo, 109c
    • Plato, Phaedo, 112b
    • Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 1261
    • Homer, Iliad, 1
    • Homer, Iliad, 4
    • Strabo, Geography, 2.1.14
    • Diodorus, Historical Library, 1.14
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