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σύν [υ^], old Att. ξύν ; Boeot. σούν IG7.3171.39 (Orchom. Boeot., iii B.C.): Prep. with dat. (rarely c. gen., ς. τῶν ἐν αὺτῷ νεκρῶν Mitteis Chr.129.23 (ii B.C.);
A.ς. ἡρώωνIPE2.383 (Phanagoria); ς. γυναικός ib.301 (Panticapaeum), cf. Ostr.240.5 (ii A.D.), PLond.1.113 iv 19 (vi A.D.)):—with. The form ξύν rarely occurs in Hom., though it is not rare in compds. even when not required by the metre, as in ξυνέαξα, ξυνοχῇσιν, ξύμβλητο, ξύμπαντα; Hes. also uses ξύμπας, ξυνιέναι; in Ion. verse we find “ξύνThgn.1063 (but “σύνId.50), Sol. 19.3 (perh. old Attic), but “σύνArchil.4, cf. ξυνωνίη, συνίημι; in early Ion. Prose (including Inscrr., cf. SIG1.2 (Abu Simbel, vi B.C.), 167.37 (Mylasa, iv B.C.), etc.) ξύν is only found in “ξυνίημιHeraclit.51, Democr.95 (cf. ἀξύνετος, ἀξυνεσίη, ξύνεσις), and in the phrase ξὺν νῷ νόῳ codd.) Heraclit.114, Democr.35; Hdt. has only σύν, and in codd. Hp. ξύν has weaker authority than σύν (i p.cxxv Kuehlewein); in the late Ionic of Aret., ξύν prevails over σύν; in Aeol. and Dor. it is rare, “ξυνοίκηνSapph.75; “ξυναλίαξεAr.Lys.93; elsewh. Dor. σύν, Leg.Gort. 5.6, IG9(1).334.47 (Locr., v B.C.), etc.; but in old Att. Inscrr. ξύν is the only form up to 500 B.C.; σύν appears in v B.C. and becomes usual towards the end; after 378 B.C. ξύν survives only in the formula γνώμην δὲ ξυμβάλλεσθαι κτλ.; the phrase ξὺν νῷ is found in Ar.Nu. 580, Pl.Cri.48c, Men.88b, R.619b (“σὺνE.Or.909); otherwise, of Att. Prose writers Th. alone uses the preposition ξύν, Antipho and Lysias have ξυν- a few times in compds.; codd. Pl. have both ξυν- (Lg.930a, al.) and συν-; in Antipho Soph.Oxy.1364, Aristox., Arr., Ael., and Anon.Rhythm. ξυν- is very freq.; in Trag. both forms occur. The Prep. σύν gradually gave way to μετά with gen., so that whereas A. has 67 examples of σύν to 8 of μετά with gen., the proportions in Th. are 400 of μετά to 37 of σύν, in D. 346 of μετά to 15 of σύν, and in Arist. 300 of μετά to 8 of σύν: for these and other statistics see C. J. T. Mommsen, Beiträge zur Lehre von den griechischen Präpositionen (Frankfurt 1886-95): in Att. Prose and Com. σύν is restricted for the most part to signf. 8, 9 and a few phrases, such as σὺν θεῷ, σὺντοῖςὅπλοις; Xenophon uses it freely, having 556 examples to 275 of μετά; in Pap., NT, and later Prose its use is much less restricted (v. infr.).
2. with collat. notion of help or aid, ς. θεῷ with God's help or blessing, as God wills, Il.9.49; “ς. σοί, πότνα θεάOd.13.391; “πέμψον δέ με ς. γε θεοῖσινIl.24.430, cf. 15.26; “ς. θεῷ φυτευθεὶς ὄλβοςPi.N.8.17; ς. θεῷ εἰρημένον spoken as by inspiration, Hdt.1.86; “ς. θεῷ δ᾽ εἰρήσεταιAr.Pl.114; “ς. θεῷ εἰπεῖνPl.Tht.151b, Prt. 317b; “ξ. θεοῖςTh.1.86; so ς. δαίμονι, ς. Ἀθήνῃ καὶ Διί, Il.11.792, 20.192; “ς. ΧαρίτεσσινPi.N.9.54, cf. P.9.2; “ξ. τῷ θεῷ πᾶς καὶ γελᾷ κὠδύρεταιS.Aj.383; also θεοῦ ς. παλάμᾳ, ς. θεοῦ τύχᾳ, Pi.O.10(11).21, N.6.24: generally, of personal cooperation, ς. σοὶ φραζέσθω let him consult with you, Il.9.346; “λοχησάμενος ς. ἑταίρῳOd.13.268; ξ. τῇ βουλῇ in consultation with the Council, IG12.63.17; ς. τινὶ μάχεσθαι fight at his side, X.Cyr.5.3.5, cf. HG4.1.34; ς. τινὶ εἶναι or γίγνεσθαι to be with another, i.e.on his side, of his party, Id.An.3.1.21, Smp.5.10; οἱ ς. αὐτῷ his friends, followers, Id.An.1.2.15, cf. Act.Ap.14.4, etc.
5. of things accompanying, or of concurrent circumstances, “ἄνεμος ς. λαίλαπιIl.17.57, cf. Od.12.408; of coincidence in time, “ἄκρᾳ ς. ἑσπέρᾳPi.P.11.10; καιρῷ ς. ἀτρεκεῖ ib.8.7; “ς. τῷ Χρόνῳ προϊόντιX.Cyr.8.7.6; in the course of, “κείνῳ ς. ἄματιB.10.23, cf. 125, Pi.Fr.123.
6. of necessary connexion or consequence, σὺν μεγάλῳ ἀποτεῖσαι to pay with a great loss, i.e. suffer greatly, Il.4.161; δημοσίῳ ς. κακῷ with loss to the public, Thgn.50; ς. τῷ σῷ ἀγαθῷ to your advantage, X.Cyr.3.1.15; ὤλοντο . . σὺν μιάς ματι with pollution, S.Ant.172; to denote agreement, in accordance with, “ς. τῷ δικαίῳ καὶ καλῷX.An.2.6.18; “ς. δίκᾳPi.P.9.96; “ς. κόσμῳHdt.8.86, Arist.Mu.398b23; “ς. τάχειS.El.872, etc.
B. POSITION:—σύν sts. follows its case, Il.10.19, Od.9.332, 15.410. It freq. stands between Adj. and Subst., as Od.11.359, Il.9.194, etc.; more rarely between Subst. and Adj., Od.13.258, Pi.P. 8.7.
2. freq. in tmesis in Hom., as Il.23.687, Od.14.296, etc.
3. in late Gr. σὺν καὶ c. dat., “στεφανηφορήσας ς. καὶ Αὐρ. ἸάσονιIG12(7).259 (Amorgos, iii A.D.), cf. Supp.Epigr.4.535 (Ephesus, ii/iii A.D.), Rev.Phil.50.11 (Sardis, i/iii A.D.), CPR26.16 (ii A.D.); cf. infr. c. 2.
C. σύν AS ADV., together, at once, “κενεὰς ς. Χεῖρας ἔχοντεςOd.10.42; mostly folld. by δέ or τε, ς. δὲ πτερὰ πυκνὰ λίασθενIl.23.879; “ς. τε δύ᾽ ἐρχομένω10.224 (cf. σύνδυο)“; ξ. τε διπλοῖ βασιλῆςS.Aj.960 (lyr.). It is sts. hard to distinguish this from tmesis, e.g. in Il.23.879; so ξὺν κακῶς ποιεῖν is = Ξυγκακοποιεῖν in Th.3.13. In Old Testament Gr. it is sts. used to translate the Hebr. 'ēth (particle prefixed to the definite accus.) through confusion with the Prep. 'ēth 'with', “ἐμίσησα σὺν τὴν ζωήνLXXEc.2.17; οὐκ ἐμνήσθη ς. τοῦ ἀνδρός ib.9.15; “ἔκτισεν θεὸς σὺν τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ σὺν τὴν γῆνAq.Ge.1.1, etc.
2. besides, also, “ς. δὲ πλουτίζειν ἐμέA.Ag.586; “ς. δ᾽ αὔτως ἐγώS.Ant. 85, etc.; “ς. δ᾽ ἐγὼ παρώνId.Aj.1288, cf. El.299; “Δίρκα τε . . ς. τ᾽ Ἀσωπιάδες κόραιE.HF785 (lyr.); in later Poetry “ς. καίA.R.1.74, Herod.4.3, Nic.Th.8, D.P.843 (also in late Prose, Ath.2.49a; cf. supr. B. 3).
I. with, along with, together, at the same time, hence of any kind of union, connexion, or participation in a thing, and metaph. of agreement or unity. In Compos. with a trans. Verb σύν may refer to the Object as well as the Subject, as συγκατακτείνειν may mean kill one person as well as another, or, join with another in killing.
2. of the completion of an action, altogether, completely, as in “συνάγνυμι, συνασκέω2, συνθρύπτω, συγκόπτω, συμπατέω, συμπληρόω, συντελέω, συντέμνω; sts., therefore, it seems only to strengthen the force of the simple word.
3. joined with numerals, σύνδυο two together, which sense often becomes distributive, by twos, two and two; so σύντρεις, σύμπεντε, etc., like Lat. bini, terni, etc.
II. σύν in Compos., before β μ π φ ψ, becomes συμ-; before γ κ ξ Χ, συγ-; before λ συλ-; before ς usu. συσ-; but becomes συ- before ς followed by a conson. (e.g. συστῆναι), before ζ, and perh. sts. before ξ. In a poet. passage, ap.Pl.Phdr.237a, we have ξύμ alone in tmesi, ξύμ μοι λάβεσθε for συλλάβεσθέ μοι; cf. “ὅτε ξὺμ πρῶτ᾽ ἐφύοντοEmp.95: in Inscrr. and Papyri these assimilations are freq. not found.
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  • Cross-references in general dictionaries from this page (109):
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