A.therefore, accordingly, an inferential Particle (never in Hom. or Hes.), “χρὴ τ. πύλας ὕμνων ἀναπιτνάμεν” Pi.O.6.27, etc.; εἰ τ . . . Hdt.1.57; ἂν τ . . . D.4.7; introducing a logical conclusion (less freq. than οὖν), Pl.Chrm.159d; φανερὸν τ., δῆλον τ., Arist.Pol.1260a2, PA641a15; also to introduce a minor premiss, or a particular instance of a general proposition, Pl.Cra.399b, Isoc.4.103, etc.
2. in dialogue, to introduce an answer, well or well then, “ἄπειμι τ.” S.El.1050, cf. Th.5.89, etc.; esp. an answer which has been led up to by the same speaker, Pl.Men.76a, IG42(1).121.31 (Epid., iv B. C.); in response to an invitation to speak, Ar.Nu.961, etc.; in expression of approval, esp. in phrase “καλῶς τ.” Pl.Cra.433a, etc.; “κάλλιστα τ.” Ar.V.856; also of disapproval or criticism, “ἀπόλοιο τ.” Id.Nu.1236, cf. S.OT1067.
c. adding or passing to a fresh item or point, further, moreover, again, Pl.Ap.33c, D.8.73, 20.18; “ἔτι τ.” Hp.VM19, Pl.Phd. 109a, Cri.52c, D.20.8; “καὶ τ.” X.Cyr.2.2.25; “καί τ. καί” Pl.Sph.234a; μὴ τ. μηδέ . . nay, not even . . , X.An.7.6.19; “οὐ τ. οὐδέ” nor again, Hp.Art.57, D.20.7.
4. sts. at the beginning of a speech, ἐγὼ μὲν τ . . . , referring to something present to the minds of the speaker and hearer, now I . . , X.An.5.1.2, cf. Cyr.6.2.14.
5. with subj. of exhortation or imper., in signfs. 1,2,3, εὖ τ. ἐπίστασθε . . Id.An.3.1.36, cf. Cyr.2.4.8, Ev.Luc.20.25, etc.
B. Position: in early writers τοίνυν is never the first word in a sentence, but this is not uncommon in later authors, as LXX Is.3.10, Mim. Oxy.413.225, Ev.Luc. l.c., Ep.Hebr.13.13, Gal.2.526, S.E. M.8.429, AP11.127 (Poll.), IG4.620.13 (Argos), Chor.32.34 F.-R. cod. (<τῷ> add. Kaibel); it is usually placed second, but sts. later, “ἥξω φέρουσα συμβολὰς τ. ἅμα” Alex.143.1, cf. Ar.Pl.863, etc. [υ^ regularly, as A.Pr.760, S.Tr.71: but sts. υ_, as Ar.Eq.1259, Alex. l. c.; in anap., Ar.Nu.429,435, Av.481.]