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τύραννος [υ^], , also (v. infr. 1.2), absolute ruler, unlimited by law or constitution, first in h.Mart. 5 (unless the hymn is late), where it is used of a god, Ἆρες, . . ἀντιβίοισι τύραννε; so τῶν θεῶν τ., of Zeus, A.Pr.736, cf. Ar.Nu.564 (lyr.); τύραννε τᾶς ἐμᾶς φρενός, i.e. Apollo, S.Tr.217 (lyr.); “σὺ δ᾽ τύραννε θεῶν τε κἀνθρώπων ἜρωςE.Fr.136; Μὴν Τύραννος, a Phrygian deity worshipped in Attica, IG22.1366.2(i A. D.), al.; οὔ, τὴν τ. (perh. Hera), in an oath, Herod.5.77: first used of monarchs in the time of Archil. (cf. “τυραννίς1) acc. to Hippias 9 D.; “Φίττακον ἐστάσαντο τ.Alc. 37 A; “ἢν μή τις τ. σκηπτοῦχος Semon.7.69; “λαγέτας τ.Pi.P.3.85; interchangeable with βασιλεύς in Isoc.2.4 (cf. 1), 35 (cf. 36); later, chief, princeling, OGI 654.8 (Egypt, i B. C.); “τ. ἴδιοι καθ᾽ ἕκαστον ἐμτπόριονPeripl.M.Rubr.14: c. gen., “Κροῖσος . . τ. ἐθνέων τῶν ἐντὸς ἍλυοςHdt.1.6; Κλεισθένης Σικυῶνος τ., Ἱστιαῖος Μιλήτου τ., etc., Id.5.67, 7.10.γ́, etc.; “ τῶν Κυπρίων τ.Sor.1.39; οἱ τ., of the Sicilian tyrants, Th.1.14; of the Pisistratidae, X.HG6.5.33, Arist.Ath.13.5, Pol.1275b36, cf. Th.6.54, Pl.Smp.182c; “τὸν τ. κτανέτηνScol.9.3; οἱ τ. the monarchical party,προδιδοὺς τοῖς τ. τὴμ πόλιν τὴν ἘρυθραίωνIG12.10.32: freq. in a bad sense, “δημοφάγος τ.Thgn.1181, cf. 823, Hdt.3.80, Pl.Grg.510b, Plt. 301c, R.569b, etc.; “ὕβρις φυτεύει τύραννονS.OT873 (lyr.).
2. in a wider sense, of members of the ruler's family, οἱ τ. 'the royal house', Id.Tr.316, cf. OC851, Charito 1.2: τύραννος is used both of the queen herself and the king's daughter, princess, E.Hec.809, Med. 42, 877, 1356, cf. infr. 11; πρέπει γὰρ ὡς τ. εἰσορᾶν, of Clytemnestra, S.El.664; “αὐτὴ . . τ. ΦρυγῶνE.Andr.204.
3. metaph., ἵνα Δίκη τ. that Justice may be supreme, Critias 25.6D.; “Ε῎ρως τ. ἀνδρῶνE. Hipp.538 (lyr.); “Πειθὼ τὴν τ. ἀνθρώποις μόνηνId.Hec.816.
4. golden-crested wren, Regulus cristatus, Arist.HA592b23; cf. “τροχίλος1.2.
II. τύραννος, ον, as Adj., kingly, royal,τύραννα σκῆπτραA. Pr.761; “τ. σχῆμαS.Ant.1169; τύραννα δρᾶν to act as a king, Id.OT 588; “ τύραννος κόρηE.Med.1125; τύραννον δῶμα the king's palace, Id.Hipp.843 (lyr.), etc.; “τ. ἑστίαId.Andr.3; τ. δόμος the royal house, Id.Hel.478, etc.; ἐς τύρανν᾽ ἐγημάμην into the royal house, Id.Tr.474.
2. imperious, despotic,τ. πόλιςTh.1.122, 124; “αἱ τ. φύσειςLuc.Ner.2. (Loan-word, prob. from Phrygian or Lydian.)
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  • Cross-references in general dictionaries from this page (39):
    • Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound, 736
    • Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound, 761
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    • Herodotus, Histories, 1.6
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    • Herodotus, Histories, 7.10
    • Homeric Hymns, Hymn 8 to Ares, 5
    • Isocrates, To Nicocles, 4
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    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.122
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.54
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 6.5.33
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.14
    • Chariton, De Chaerea et Callirhoe, 1.2
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