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ὑπερφία^λος [ι^], ον,
A.overbearing, overweening, arrogant, of persons, freq. in Homer, in Il. of the Trojans, 13.621, 21.459, al.; in Od. of the Cyclopes, 9.106 (of the Cyclopes in good sense, B.10.78); more freq. of the suitors, Od.1.134, 2.310, al.; “ΓίγαντεςB.14.62; . γόνος, of a Centaur, Pi.P.2.42, cf. O.10(11).34, P.4.111; also θυμὸς . an arrogant spirit, Il.15.94; ἔπος, μῦθοι ., Od.4.503,774.—Orig. the word seems only to have signified puissant, without any bad sense, as is prob. from Od.21.289, where Antinous uses it of himself and the rest of the suitors, ὑπερφιάλοισι μεθ᾽ ἡμῖν δαίνυσαι; and Aristarch. read ὑπερφίαλον for ὑπέρθυμον in Il.5.881: later writers also used it without any bad sense, δεσμὸς . a huge bond, Pi.Fr.92; οἶνον ὑπερφίαλον κελαρύζετε pour the noble wine, or pour it without stint, Ion Trag.10:—this notion appears most clearly in the Adv. ὑπερφιάλως, exceedingly, excessively,. νεμεσᾶνIl.13.293, Od.17.481, 21.285; “ἀνιάζεινIl.18.300: but the Adv. also passed into the sense of haughtily, arrogantly, Od.1.227, 4.663, etc. (The old deriv. from ὑπὲρ φιάλην, running over (cf. Ion l.c.), is improbable, but modern explanations are unconvincing.)
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