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ăd-ĕō^ , adv. cf. quoad and adhuc (acc. to Festus, it should be accented adéo,
I.v. the preced. word; but this distinction is merely a later invention of the grammarians; cf. Gell. 7, 7).
I. In the ante-class. per.,
A. To designate the limit of space or time, with reference to the distance passed through; hence often accompanied by usque (cf. ad), to this, thus far, so far, as far.
1. Of space: “surculum artito usque adeo, quo praeacueris,fit in the scion as far as you have sharpened it, Cato, R. R. 40, 3.— Hence: res adeo rediit, the affair has gone so far (viz., in deterioration, “cum aliquid pejus exspectatione contigit,” Don. ad Ter. Ph. 1, 2, 5): “postremo adeo res rediit: adulescentulus saepe eadem et graviter audiendo victus est,Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 61; cf. id. Ph. 1, 2, 5.—
2. Of time, so long (as), so long (till), strengthened by usque, and with dum, donec, following, and in Cic. with quoad: “merces vectatum undique adeo dum, quae tum haberet, peperisset bona,Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 76; 3, 4, 72; id. Am. 1, 2, 10 al.: “nusquam destitit instare, suadere, orare, usque adeo donec perpulit,Ter. And. 4, 1, 36; Cato, R. R. 67; id. ib. 76: “atque hoc scitis omnes usque adeo hominem in periculo fuisse, quoad scitum sit Sestium vivere,Cic. Sest. 38, 82.—
B. For the purpose of equalizing two things in comparison, followed by ut: in the same degree or measure or proportion . . . in which; or so very, so much, so, to such a degree ... as (only in comic poets), Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 38: “adeon hominem esse invenustum aut infelicem quemquam, ut ego sum?Ter. And. 1, 5, 10.—Also followed by quasi, when the comparison relates to similarity: “gaudere adeo coepit, quasi qui cupiunt nuptias,in the same manner as those rejoice who desire marriage, Ter. Heaut. 5, 1, 12.—
C. (Only in the comic poets) = ad haec, praeterea, moreover, besides, too: ibi tibi adeo lectus dabitur, ubi tu haud somnum capias (beside the other annoyances), a bed, too, shall be given you there, etc., Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 80.—Hence also with etiam: “adeo etiam argenti faenus creditum audio,besides too, id. Most. 3, 1, 101.—
D. (Only in the comic poets.) Adeo ut, for this purpose that, to the end that: “id ego continuo huic dabo, adeo me ut hic emittat manu,Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 32: “id adeo te oratum advenio, ut, etc.,id. Aul. 4, 10, 9: “adeo ut tu meam sententiam jam jam poscere possis, faciam, etc.,id. ib. 3, 2, 26 (where Wagner now reads at ut): “atque adeo ut scire possis, factum ego tecum hoc divido,id. Stich. 5, 4, 15. (These passages are so interpreted by Hand, I. p. 138; others regard adeo here = quin immo.)—
E. In narration, in order to put one person in strong contrast with another. It may be denoted by a stronger emphasis upon the word to be made conspicuous, or by yet, on the contrary, etc.: “jam ille illuc ad erum cum advenerit, narrabit, etc.: ille adeo illum mentiri sibi credet,Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 4 sq.; so id. Merc. 2, 1, 8 al.
II. To the Latin of every period belongs the use of this word,
A. To give emphasis to an idea in comparison, so, so much, so very, with verbs, adjectives, and substantives: “adeo ut spectare postea omnīs oderit,Plaut. Capt. prol. 65: “neminem quidem adeo infatuare potuit, ut ei nummum ullum crederet,Cic. Fl. 20, 47: “adeoque inopia est coactus Hannibal, ut, etc.,Liv. 22, 32, 3 Weiss.: “et voltu adeo modesto, adeo venusto, ut nil supra,Ter. And. 1, 1, 92: “nemo adeo ferus est, ut, etc.,Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 39.—With usque: “adeo ego illum cogam usque, ut mendicet meus pater,Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 10: “usque adeo turbatur,even so much, so continually, Verg. E. 1, 12; Curt. 10, 1, 42; Luc. 1, 366.—In questions: “adeone me fuisse fungum, ut qui illi crederem?Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 49: “adeone hospes hujus urbis, adeone ignarus es disciplinae consuetudinisque nostrae, ut haec nescias?Cic. Rab. 10, 28; so id. Phil. 2, 7, 15; id. Fam. 9, 10; Liv. 2, 7, 10; 5, 6, 4.—With a negative in both clauses, also with quin in the last: “non tamen adeo virtutum sterile saeculum, ut non et bona exempla prodiderit,Tac. H. 1, 3; so Suet. Oth. 9: “verum ego numquam adeo astutus fui, quin, etc.,Ter. Ad. 2, 2, 13.— “Sometimes the concluding clause is to be supplied from the first: quis genus Aeneadum, quis Trojae nesciat urbem? ... non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Poeni, viz.,that we know not the Trojans and their history, Verg. A. 1, 565: “adeo senuerunt Juppiter et Mars?Juv. 6, 59.—Hence (post-Cic.): adeo non ut ... adeo nihil ut ... so little that, so far from that ... (in reference to which, it should be noticed that in Latin the negative is blended with the verb in one idea, which is qualified by adeo) = tantum abest ut: haec dicta adeo nihil moverunt quemquam, ut legati prope violati sint, these words left them all so unmoved that, etc., or had so little effect, etc., Liv. 3, 2, 7: qui adeo non tenuit iram, ut gladio cinctum in senatum venturum se esse palam diceret, who restrained his anger so little that, etc. (for, qui non—tenuit iram adeo, ut), id. 8, 7, 5; so 5, 45, 4; Vell. 2, 66, 4: Curt. 3, 12, 22.—Also with contra in the concluding clause: “apud hostes Afri et Carthaginienses adeo non sustinebant, ut contra etiam pedem referrent,Liv. 30, 34, 5. —
B. Adeo is placed enclitically after its word, like quidem, certe, and the Gr. γὲ, even, indeed, just, precisely. So,
1. Most freq. with pronouns, in order to render prominent something before said, or foll., or otherwise known (cf. in Gr. ἔγωγε, σύγε, αὐτός γε, etc., Viger. ed. Herm. 489, vi. and Zeun.): argentariis male credi qui aiunt, nugas praedicant: nam et bene et male credi dico; id adeo hodie ego expertus sum, just this (τοῦτό γε), Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 1; so id. Aul. 2, 4, 10; 4, 2, 15; id. Am. 1, 1, 98; 1, 2, 6; id. Ep. 1, 1, 51; 2, 2, 31; 5, 2, 40; id. Poen. 1, 2, 57: plerique homines, quos, cum nihil refert, pudet; “ubi pudendum'st ibi eos deserit pudor, is adeo tu es,you are just such a one, id. Ep. 2, 1, 2: “cui tu obsecutus, facis huic adeo injuriam,Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 68: tute adeo jam ejus verba audies, you yourself shall hear what he has to say (σύγε ἀκούσῃ), Ter. And. 3, 3, 27: Dolabella tuo nihil scito mihi esse jucundius: hanc adeo habebo gratiam illi, i. e. hanc, quae maxima est, gratiam (ταύτην γε τὴν χάριν), Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 16: “haec adeo ex illo mihi jam speranda fuerunt,even this, Verg. A. 11, 275.—It is often to be translated by the intensive and, and just, etc. (so esp. in Cic. and the histt.): id adeo, si placet, considerate, just that (τοῦτό γε σκοπεῖτε), Cic. Caec. 30, 87: “id adeo ex ipso senatus consulto cognoscite,Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 64, 143; cf. id. Clu. 30, 80: “ad hoc quicumque aliarum atque senatus partium erant, conturbari remp., quam minus valere ipsi malebant. Id adeo malum multos post annos in civitatem reverterat,And just this evil, Sall. C. 37, 11; so 37, 2; id. J. 68, 3; Liv. 2, 29, 9; 4, 2, 2: id adeo manifestum erit, si cognoverimus, etc., and this, precisely this, will be evident, if, etc., Quint. 2, 16, 18 Spald.—It is rarely used with ille: “ille adeo illum mentiri sibi credet,Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 6.—Sometimes with the rel. pron.: quas adeo haud quisquam liber umquam tetigit, Plaut: Poen. 1, 2, 57; Cic. Fin. 2, 12, 37. —With interrog. pron.: “Quis adeo tam Latinae linguae ignarus est, quin, etc.,Gell. 7, 17.—Adeo is joined with the pers. pron. when the discourse passes from one person to another, and attention is to be particularly directed to the latter: Juppiter, tuque adeo summe Sol, qui res omnes inspicis, and thou especially, and chiefly thou, Enn. ap. Prob.: “teque adeo decus hoc aevi inibit,Verg. E. 4, 11; id. G. 1, 24: teque, Neptune, invoco, vosque adeo venti, Poët. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 34, 73; “and without the copulative: vos adeo . . . item ego vos virgis circumvinciam,Plaut. Rud. 3, 4, 25.— Ego adeo often stands for ego quidem, equidem (ἔγωγε): “tum libertatem Chrysalo largibere: ego adeo numquam accipiam,Plaut. Bacch. 4, 7, 30; so id. Mil. 4, 4, 55; id. Truc. 4, 3, 73: “ego adeo hanc primus inveni viam,Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 16: “nec me adeo fallit,Verg. A. 4, 96.—Ipse adeo (αὐτός γε), for the sake of emphasis: “atque hercle ipsum adeo contuor,Plaut. As. 2, 3, 24: “ipsum adeo praesto video cum Davo,Ter. And. 2, 5, 4: “ipse adeo senis ductor Rhoeteus ibat pulsibus,Sil. 14, 487.—
2. With the conditional conjj. si, nisi, etc. (Gr. εἴ γε), if indeed, if truly: “nihili est autem suum qui officium facere immemor est, nisi adeo monitus,unless, indeed, he is reminded of it, Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 2: Si. Num illi molestae quippiam hae sunt nuptiae? Da. Nihil Hercle: aut si adeo, bidui est aut tridui haec sollicitudo, and if, indeed, etc. (not if also, for also is implied in aut), Ter. And. 2, 6, 7.—
4. With adjectives = vel, indeed, even, very, fully: “quot adeo cenae, quas deflevi, mortuae!how very many suppers, Plaut. Stich. 1, 3, 59: quotque adeo fuerint, qui temnere superbum ... Lucil. ap. Non. 180, 2: nullumne malorum finem adeo poenaeque dabis (adeo separated from nullum by poet. license)? wilt thou make no end at all to calamity and punishment? Val. Fl. 4, 63: “trīs adeo incertos caeca caligine soles erramus,three whole days we wander about, Verg. A. 3, 203; 7, 629.—And with comp. or the adv. magis, multo, etc.: “quae futura et quae facta, eloquar: multo adeo melius quam illi, cum sim Juppiter,very much better, Plaut. Am. 5, 2, 3; so id. Truc. 2, 1, 5: “magis adeo id facilitate quam aliā ullā culpā meā, contigit,Cic. de Or. 2, 4, 15.—
5. With the conjj. sive, aut, vel, in order to annex a more important thought, or to make a correction, or indeed, or rather, or even only: “sive qui ipsi ambīssent, seu per internuntium, sive adeo aediles perfidiose quoi duint,Plaut. Am. prol. 71: “si hercle scivissem, sive adeo joculo dixisset mihi, se illam amare,id. Merc. 5, 4, 33; so id. Truc. 4, 3, 1; id. Men. 5, 2, 74; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 9: nam si te tegeret pudor, sive adeo cor sapientia imbutum foret, Pacuv. ap. Non. 521, 10: “mihi adeunda est ratio, quā ad Apronii quaestum, sive adeo, quā ad istius ingentem immanemque praedam possim pervenire,or rather, Cic. Verr 2, 3, 46, 110; Verg. A. 11, 369; so, atque adeo: “ego princeps in adjutoribus atque adeo secundus,Cic. Att. 1, 17, 9.—
6. With the imperative, for emphasis, like tandem, modo, dum, the Germ. so, and the Gr. γὲ (cf. L. and S.), now, I pray: “propera adeo puerum tollere hinc ab janua,Ter. And. 4, 4, 20 (cf. ξυλλάβετέ γ̓ αὐτόν, Soph. Phil. 1003).—
C. Like admodum or nimis, to give emphasis to an idea (for the most part only in comic poets, and never except with the positive of the adj.; cf. Consent. 2023 P.), indeed, truly, so very, so entirely: “nam me ejus spero fratrem propemodum jam repperisse adulescentem adeo nobilem,so very noble, Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 123: “nec sum adeo informis,nor am I so very ugly, Verg. E. 2, 25: “nam Caii Luciique casu non adeo fractus,Suet. Aug. 65: “et merito adeo,and with perfect right, Ter. Hec. 2, 1, 42: “etiam num credis te ignorarier aut tua facta adeo,do you, then, think that they are ignorant of you or your conduct entirely? id. Ph. 5, 8, 38.—
D. To denote what exceeds expectation, even: quam omnium Thebis vir unam esse optimam dijudicat, quamque adeo cives Thebani rumificant probam, and whom even the Thebans (who are always ready to speak evil of others) declare to be an honest woman, Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 44.— Hence also it denotes something added to the rest of the sentence, besides, too, over and above, usually in the connection: -que adeo (rare, and never in prose; cf. “adhuc, I.): quin te Di omnes perdant qui me hodie oculis vidisti tuis, meque adeo scelestum,and me too, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 122; cf. id. 4, 2, 32: “haec adeo tibi me, ipsa palam fari omnipotens Saturnia jussit,Verg. A. 7, 427.
III. After Caesar and Cicero (the only instance of this use adduced from Cicero's works, Off. 1, 11, 36, being found in a passage rejected by the best critics, as B. and K.).
A. For adding an important and satisfactory reason to an assertion, and then it always stands at the beginning of the clause, indeed, for: “cum Hanno perorāsset, nemini omnium cum eo certare necesse fuit: adeo prope omnis senatus Hannibalis erat: the idea is,Hanno's speech, though so powerful, was ineffectual, and did not need a reply; for all the senators belonged to the party of Hannibal, Liv. 21, 11, 1; so id. 2, 27, 3; 2, 28, 2; 8, 37, 2; Tac. Ann. 1, 50, 81; Juv. 3, 274; 14, 233.—Also for introducing a parenthesis: sed ne illi quidem ipsi satis mitem gentem fore (adeo ferocia atque indomita ingenia esse) ni subinde auro ... principum animi concilientur, Liv. 21, 20, 8; so id. 9, 26, 17; 3, 4, 2; Tac. A. 2, 28.—
B. When to a specific fact a general consideration is added as a reason for it, so, thus (in Livy very often): “haud dubius, facilem in aequo campi victoriam fore: adeo non fortuna modo, sed ratio etiam cum barbaris stabat,thus not only fortune, but sagacity, was on the side of the barbarians, Liv. 5, 38, 4: “adeo ex parvis saepe magnarum momenta rerum pendent,id. 27, 9, 1; so id. 4, 31, 5; 21, 33, 6; 28, 19; Quint. 1, 12, 7; Curt. 10, 2, 11; Tac. Agr. 1: “adeo in teneris consuescere multum est,Verg. G. 2, 272.—
C. In advancing from one thought to another more important = immo, rather, indeed, nay: nulla umquam res publica ubi tantus paupertati ac parsimoniae honos fuerit: adeo, quanto rerum minus, tanto minus cupiditatis erat, Liv. praef. 11; so Gell. 11, 7; Symm. Ep. 1, 30, 37.—
D. With a negative after ne—quidem or quoque, so much the more or less, much less than, still less (post-Aug.): “hujus totius temporis fortunam ne deflere quidem satis quisquam digne potuit: adeo nemo exprimere verbis potest,still less can one describe: it by words, Vell. 2, 67, 1: “ne tecta quidem urbis, adeo publicum consilium numquam adiit,still less, Tac. A. 6, 15; so id. H. 3, 64; Curt. 7, 5, 35: “favore militum anxius et superbia viri aequalium quoque, adeo superiorum intolerantis,who could not endure his equals even, much less his superiors, Tac. H. 4, 80.—So in gen., after any negative: quaelibet enim ex iis artibus in paucos libros contrahi solet: adeo infinito spatio ac traditione opus non est, so much the less is there need, etc., Quint. 12, 11, 16; Plin. 17, 12, 35, § 179; Tac. H. 3, 39.—(The assumption of a causal signif. of adeo = ideo, propterea, rests upon false readings. For in Cael. Cic. Fam. 8, 15 we should read ideo, B. and K., and in Liv. 24, 32, 6, ad ea, Weiss.).—See more upon this word in Hand, Turs. I. pp. 135-155.
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